Michigan State University

Communicative Sciences and Disorders Orientation: APA Formatting

Citation for Students

As a master's student you are going to write papers and work on projects that will require you to cite your resources. The sooner you understand how to cite with APA, the format used in CSD, the easier your research will become!

An Introduction to APA

Watch the video below for an introduction to the mechanics of the APA (American Psychological Association) citation style. 

APA Basics

The APA Publication Manual is the authoritative work on the citation and writing style. It is available at the reference desk of the Main Library.

There are many books and websites that help with navigating APA. This is just a small sampling.

  • APA also has a website that includes some "Quick Answers" and general advice on formatting and citation questions http://www.apastyle.org/
  • APA Style Essentials by Douglas Degelman, Ph.D., and Martin Lorenzo Harris, Ph.D. offers an up-to-date overview.

Style Tutorials

  • APA Exposed
    Harvard's guide to APA. Easy to pick just the areas you need, covers the whole APA Style process.

Using a Citation to Find Full Text

Why Cite?

It is easy to forget why citation is important. Beyond just giving credit for other people’s ideas and not plagiarizing citation plays a key role in the broader academic landscape.

Through citations one can follow the history of research that someone is responding to and adding on to. With proper citations in papers, a student can show their professor the historical progression of their research idea. Scholarship is always growing and citations show what one is building on top of. 

Adding to the discourse of scholarly communication is another important aspect. When publishing, citations are necessary so that people outside of your community of students and professors can understand what you have been exposed to and why you are making the arguments you do.

Getting Tricky

The APA Publication Manual has a lot of answers on how to cite different formats but it doesn't cover them all. Luckily you (probably) don't have to make it up yourself. The APA Style Blog is written by the official APA experts on topics that haven't made it into the Manual. You can find answers on how to cite digital maps, white papers, and more.

Try It Out

With what you have learned, create an APA citation for the following article: 


Which of these is formatted correctly?




Which of the above options is formatted correctly?
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