Hornbooks and battledores were produced in England and America to help children learn the alphabet.
A hornbook is a wooden paddle with the alphabet and a short passage. "The Lord's Prayer" (a Christian prayer) was often used.
A battledore is an inexpensive pamphlet with the alphabet and other simple text, such as lists of one-syllable words or an easy reading passage.
Left: a hornbook. Right: a battledore.
Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language was the forerunner of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries still published today. He also wrote:
Elocution, or public speaking, was widely taught in American schools for many decades. Several representative titles:
Before typewriters and keyboards, penmanship was an important subject for younger students. Several representative titles: