What's the difference between primary and secondary sources?
For more on this, see this 4-minute video, Understanding Primary Sources. (It's the second video on the list. You can skip the first video by just clicking on the title Understanding Primary Sources below the video window.)
Roughly 25 years after World War II, African American soldiers were among those serving in the Vietnam War. How had the Civil Rights movement and nascent Black Power movement changed attitudes?
Blacks in the Military: The Myth of Equal Opportunity. Center for National Security Studies, 197-?
Black Marines Against the Brass. Radical Education Project, 197-?
The Black Man's Stake in Vietnam. Eldridge Cleaver. Black Panther Party [?], 197-?
Brothers, Black Soldiers in the Nam. Stanley Goff et al. Berkley Books, 1982.
Kangaroo Court-Martial: George Daniels and William Harvey, Two Black Marines Who Got 6 and 10 Years for Opposing the Vietnam War. Committee for G.I. Rights, 1969.
Uncle Sam Wants YOU, Nigger. Harlem Progressive Labor Club, 196-?
War, Racism, the Movement: As We See It. Jarvis Tyner. W.E.B. Du Bois Clubs of America, 1968.
A White Man's War: Race Issues and Vietnam. Vietnam Generation, 1989.
American Black Journal is a weekly television program on African American arts, culture, and community issues, which has been produced in Detroit since 1968.
It was originally called Colored People's Time, but the title was soon changed to Detroit Black Journal. The show was renamed American Black Journal in 1988.
Production files from the first 34 years of the program (1968 to 2002) were given to Special Collections by Detroit Public Television.
The period from 1940-1980 saw dramatic changes in how many African Americans dressed and styled their hair, reflecting the changing Black identity.
The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2013) has a brief summary of the Black Arts Movement.
The Encyclopedia of Race and Racism (2013) has a longer introduction.
Larry Neal's essay "The Black Arts Movement" (published in Drama Review in 1968) was one of the first to recognize the new direction in Black creative work.
In addition to strong holdings of the Broadside Press and Third World Press (described above), we have scattered holdings of several other publications of the Black Arts movement.
The Broadside Press was founded in Detroit in 1965 by Dudley Randall. It was instrumental in bringing many Black poets to national attention.
We have about 100 items issued by the press, many of which are actual broadsides. (This term means poetry or prose printed on a single sheet, so it can be framed or posted.)
How to find
Search the MSU library catalog.
Selected key documents in the Black Feminist movement:
The Black Power movement emerged in the later years of the Civil Rights movement. Black Power encompassed diverse visions and goals, including:
Pan-Africanism and solidarity between African countries and African Americans:
Exploration of common goals between Black Nationalism and Socialist and Communist organizations:
Interest in Afro-centric culture, including creation of the Kwanzaa holiday:
Black nationalism and the establishment of a separate nation for African Americans within the territory of the United States:
The Encyclopedia of Race and Racism (2013) provides background on the Black Power Movement.
The Encyclopedia of African American History: 1896 to the Present (2009) has an introductory article on the Black Power Movement.
We have selected issues of several periodicals associated with the Black Power movement:
Longer runs of these periodicals are available online or in the Main Library collection.
Emory Douglas was the Minister of Culture for the Black Panthers from 1967 to the 1980s, and a talented artist.
Many of the back-page illustrations of the Black Panther newspaper were by Douglas. These could be detached and used as posters.
Rizzoli published Black Panther: The Revolutionary Art of Emory Douglas in 2007.
These titles range from books for elementary-age children to histories for adult readers.
1893 - A School History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1890... revised edition, by Edward A. Johnson.
1902 - Progress of a Race: Or, the Remarkable Advancement of the American Negro... by J.W. Gibson and W.H. Crogman.
1928 - Negro Makers of History, by Carter G. Woodson
1933 - The Negro in America, by Alain Locke
1938 - The Negro American Series (four volumes) by Emma E. Akin
1938 - Negro Folk Tales for Pupils in the Primary Grades, by Helen Adele Whiting
1938 - Negro Art, Music, and Rhyme for Young Folks, by Helen Adele Whiting
1943 - The Negro, Too, in American History, by Merl R. Eppse
1947 - Little Journeys into Storyland: Stories that Will Live and Lift, by Louis B. Reynolds and Charles L. Paddock
1956 - A Pictorial History of the Negro in America, by Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer
1959 - The Story of the Negro Retold, by Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley
1969 - Afro Americans, Then and Now, by Jane Hurley and Doris McGee Haynes.
1971 - The Struggle for Freedom and Rights: Basic Facts about the Negro in American History. "To be used in connection with classroom texts for grade 8."
Our LGBTQ collections include many newsletters and books from Black and multiracial LGBTQ organizations. Several examples:
Brother to Brother: New Writings by Black Gay Men. Essex Hemphill, ed. Alyson Publications, 1991.
Afrekete: An Anthology of Black Lesbian Writing. Catherine E. McKinley and L. Joyce Delaney, eds. Anchor Books, 1995.
Works by African American authors:
And: Children of Crisis: A Study of Courage and Fear. (Robert Coles. Little Brown, 1967.) Robert Coles is a child psychiatrist and is white. MSU Special Collections has Coles' papers and work files, spanning about 50 years, including documents about his interactions with Ruby Bridges, the first African American child to integrate an all-white elementary school in the South.
Terri L. Jewell (1954-1995) was an African American, lesbian-feminist author and activist. She grew up in Louisville but attended MSU and lived in Lansing as an adult.
She was the editor of The Black Woman's Gumbo Ya-Ya: Quotations by Black Women (Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1993) and published poetry and essays in dozens of publications.
We have an extensive collection on the United Farm Workers, especially primary source materials from the UFW strikes against grape, lettuce and strawberry growers in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
We also have many examples of the promotional items the UFW distributed to share its message, like buttons and bumper stickers.