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Michigan State University

Criminal Justice: Data and Statistics: Corrections

Getting Started

Persons Under Correctional Supervision
An overview of corrections from Section 6 of the Sourcebook on Criminal Justice Statistics.

Corrections & Public Policy

Pew Center on the States - Corrections and Public Safety

The Pew Center on the States conducts nonpartisan research and analysis to advance state policies that serve the public interest.  The Public Safety Performance Project  helps states advance fiscally sound, data-driven sentencing and corrections policies and practices that protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control costs.  The Center publishes reports based on original studies and analysis of state correctional systems with a focus on state budgets and finances.

One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
One in 100: Behind the Bars in America 2008

National Conference of State Legislators - Civil & Criminal Justice
Most crimes fall under the jurisdiction of states, making criminal justice an important perennial issue before state legislatures and a significant function and expenditure item for state and local governments. NCSL's Criminal Justice Program is a resource for state lawmakers and staff on a wide range of topics that reflect the many aspects and functions of criminal justice systems.  Check the publications list for statistical reports.

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Corrections Statistics
This page from the Bureau of Justice Statistics provides summary findings, data collections, and related links.

A selection of major publications:

Correctional Populations in the United States
Presents data on the number of persons in the United States who were under some form of correctional supervision.  Published from 1985-1998, some editions in print.

Prisoners in ...
Annual publication that presents data on prisoners under jurisdiction of federal or state correctional authorities as of December 31 of each year, collected from the National Prisoner Statistics series.

Prison Inmates at Midyear
Presents data on prisoners under the jurisdiction of federal or state correctional authorities on June 30 of each year, collected from the National Prisoner Statistics series.

Probation and Parole in the United States
Presents the number of persons on probation and parole at yearend by state, the number of entries and exits to probation and parole by state, and describes the characteristics of probationers and parolees, including gender, race, and offense.

A selection of major surveys:

Annual Survey of Jails
Collects intercensal estimates of the number of inmates in the nation's local jails and data on the relationship between jail populations and capacities.  Data sets and related literature are available in the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD).

Census of Jails
Conducted every 5 years, detailing information on each facility, admissions and releases, court orders, programs that offer alternatives to incarceration, amount charged to hold an inmate for another jurisdiction, use of space and crowding, staffing, health care (including prevalence of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis), drug testing policies and practices, inmate work assignments, and education and counseling programs. Data sets and related literature from NACJD.

Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities
onducted approximately every 5 years, providing detailed information on the types of inmates housed, facility age and type, security level, court orders, programs, health and safety conditions, confinement space, employment, and operating costs.  Data sets, online analysis and related literature from NACJD.

Death in Custody Reporting Program
collects quarterly inmate death records from each of the nation's 50 state prison systems, 50 state juvenile correctional authorities, and 3,095 local jails. In addition, this program collects quarterly records of all deaths during the process of arrest by each of the nation's 17,784 state and local law enforcement agencies.  Statistical tables and publications are also available.

National Corrections Reporting Program
Collects data annually on prison admissions and releases and on parole entries and discharges in participating jurisdictions. Demographic information, conviction offenses, sentence length, minimum time to be served, credited jail time, type of admission, type of release, and time served are collected from individual prisoner records.   Data sets, online anlaysis, related literature and resource guide available from NACJD.

National Prisoner Statistics
produces annual and semiannual national and state-level data on the numbers of prisoners in state and federal prison facilities.  

Juveniles

Office of Juvenile Justice and Deliquency Prevention

Statistical Briefing Book

Juveniles in Corrections

Juveniles on Probation

Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement
Census of indvidual level data on delinquent young persons held in residential facilities.

Juvenile Residential Facility Census
Census of the characteristics of juvenile residential facilities.  Search the OJJDP publications for regular bulletins.

National Juvenile Corrections Data Resource Guide
This guide from the National Archive on Criminal Justice Data provides a summary of OJJDP data collections and links to data sets.

Michigan Department of Corrections

Michigan Department of Corrections Statistical Report
Provides tables on court dispositions, prison commitments, prisoner population, parole board data, field operations data, and department operations data.
Reports are available online from 1998-present; previous editions available in the Michigan Documents Collection (3 West) at call number HV 8342 .A26.

State Corrections Statistics

The National Institute of Corrections provides statistical briefs for all 50 states that give an overview of correctional systems.

Federal Bureau of Prisons

"The Federal Bureau of Prisons was established in 1930 to provide more progressive and humane care for Federal inmates, to professionalize the prison service, and to ensure consistent and centralized administration of the 11 Federal prisons in operation at the time."

Quick Facts
Data on inmate population, inmate demographics, sentences, types of offenses and staff demographics.

International Prisons

International Center for Prison Studies
The International Center for Prison Studies is housed at Kings College, London.  The World Prison Brief provides basic statistical information by world region and country.  Many publications contain statistical information such as the World Pre-Trial/Remand Imprisonment List and the World Prison Population List.

Links to all editions of the World Population Prison List report, currently published by the International Centre for Prison Studies.  This report provides information on the global prison population and the rate per 100,000 of the national population (the prison population rate) in 218 countries and territories.

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