Although one would expect the Census Bureau's data to be individually focused, there is also some school and school district data. Do a search or use the A-Z list to find what's available under Education.
The Michigan Department of Education has an information rich Web site. Most of the statistical analyses researchers will need are loaded and readily available. Among the titles available: Michigan K-12 School Districts Ranked By Selected Financial Data
The OECD Education Database provides internationally comparable data on key aspects of the education systems. On-line access features data on: educational finance, students enrolled, new entrants to a level of education, graduates, and educational personnel.
Unesco offers a couple of data sources:
WebCASPAR from the National Science Foundation provides easy access to a large body of statistical data resources for science and engineering (S&E) at U.S. academic institutions. WebCASPAR emphasizes S&E, but its data resources also provide information on non-S&E fields and higher education in general.
World Bank Data - Education offers data on education inputs, participation, efficiency, and outcomes. Much of the data here is from UNESCO (see above) but they also draw from official responses to surveys and from reports provided by education authorities in each country.