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African American Studies Research Guide: AAAS830 : African American Studies Readings, 2013-2015

Introduction


 

The following compilation is a list of recommend readings for PhD students (last revised June 30, 2013) compiled by Rita Kiki Edozie, Professor and former director of African American and African Studies Department at Michigan State University. MSU Library holding information and annotations have been added whenever available. If MSU Library records lack an annotation, Amazon and other sources have been mined for missing information. If a title is not currently available, it can be requested through interlibrary loan.  (Note : Uborrow provides the quickest access and the longest check-out periods.)


 

Prefactory remarks :

The late Manning Marable proclaimed that Black Studies ought to be "descriptive, prescriptive and corrective" (Marable, Souls, 2000).  An Introduction to African American and African Studies II (AAAS830 African American Studies) builds on Marable’s disciplinary mission for Black Studies by providing graduate students with the foundational principles, themes and elements of the Black Studies field of study anchored by the African American experience.

Preparing students to conduct advanced research study and specialized knowledge production required for dissertation study of African American peoples and communities in historical, comparative and global perspective, the course begins with a comprehensive discussion of the origins, nature, debates and trends of the Black Studies discipline. In doing so, the course facilitates for students the theoretical and methodological scholarly grounding and introspection required for Black Studies graduate-level study.

Taking seriously the observation by Carter G. Woodson, that "the mere imparting of information is not education"(Woodson, 1925), classical and topical readings on race (Perry, Mills, Cox), the Black identity and Black discourses will be critically re-examined while key historical events in American history such as slavery (Akbar), colonialism, and emancipation, reconstruction, civil rights (Joseph) and post-racialism will be excavated to underscore these events’ connections, correlations, continuities and discontinuities with contemporary African American political affairs and public policy issues (Dyson, Mohammed). In this regard, we explore these issues as they pertain to contemporary African American political representation, constitutionalism and public policies in relation to sustained poverty, inequality and uneven development in Black communities (Rose, Robinson).

Significantly, as well, in an age indicative of the complexity of the Black condition signified by the persona of Barack Obama (Cobb) and globalization, the course equally examines the relative, yet, actually-existing power bases, as well as the creative and alternative expressions that have forged African American culture/s, feminisms (hooks), literary genres, and other dynamic aspects of African Americans’ political-economic agency, entrepreneurship, innovation, human capital and cultural production.

Reading lists for AAAS 829 and AAAS 831 are also available on the African American and African Studies Department website.

State of the Discipline


Readings explore Black Studies disciplinary orientation (explore the contested terminology – African American Studies, African Studies, Africana Studies, Pan-African Studies, Afro-American Studies, Africology, Black Studies- but agree that discipline is a legitimate, institutionalized and worthwhile inquiry of scholarship and education. Readings also trace the historical development of Black Studies; its history, evolution and debates from the US civil rights era – first black studies programs in 1968 San Francisco State and 1988 PhD at Temple.

Aldridge, Delores P. and Carlene Young. Out of the Revolution: The Development of Africana Studies. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2000. 583pp. Main Library E184.7 .O88 2000 : This collection of 32 essays is an attempt to gather the work of individuals who have devoted their professional lives to the development of what is referred to here as Africana studies. Contributions are presented in ten parts, with the last being "Prospectus of the Future." Understandably, the editors paint a relatively rosy future for Africana studies; perhaps, considering the difficulty of getting new academic units approved in colleges today, a bit too rosy. Other writers point out that despite what one might expect, historically black colleges and universities, which have too-often followed a Eurocentric curriculum, have not been leaders in establishing most Africana studies programs. It is also informative that the South, with the highest number of black higher-education institutions and greatest population of African Americans, has the smallest number of black studies programs. The late Stanley Crockett Espinoza's essay on Afro-Mexicans, a group ignored by most Mexican scholars and unknown to most North American blacks, is the most original contribution. The several other essays are of varying quality, but all are important reading for anyone interested in black, or Africana, studies.

Alkalimat, Abdul. Introduction to Afro-American Studies: A People’s College Primer.Chicago : Twenty-first Century Books and Publications, 1986. 6th edition, 391pp. Main Library E184.7 .I57 1986 .

Anderson, Talmadge and James Stewart. Introduction to African American Studies: Transdisciplinary Approaches and Implications. Baltimore: Imprint editions, 2007. 430pp. Main Library E184.7 .A52 2007 . There is an ongoing debate as to whether African American Studies is a discipline, or multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary field. Some scholars assert that African American Studies use a well-defined common approach in examining history, politics, and the family in the same way as scholars in the disciplines of economics, sociology, and political science. Other scholars consider African American Studies multidisciplinary, a field somewhat comparable to the field of education in which scholars employ a variety of disciplinary lenses-be they anthropological, psychological, historical, etc., --to study the African world experience. In this model the boundaries between traditional disciplines are accepted, and researches in African American Studies simply conduct discipline based an analysis of particular topics. Finally, another group of scholars insists that African American Studies is interdisciplinary, an enterprise that generates distinctive analyses by combining perspectives from different traditional disciplines and synthesizing them into a unique framework of analysis.

Asante Kete, Molefi. "Africology and the Puzzle of Nomenclature".   Journal of Black Studies.  Volume 40, Number 1 (September 2009), pp.12-23.  This article seeks to survey a number of names offered for the discipline that originated as Black Studies. Taking the position that practice is not arbitrary, although naming could be quite arbitrary, the author examines the practice of the field to suggest that those who see the study as a discipline have participated in Afrocentric analysis or critiques of African phenomena. Thus, the name Africology is suggested as the referent for Afrocentric analyses and critiques.

Asante, Molefi Kete.   An Afrocentric Manifesto : Toward an African RenaissanceCambridge : Polity, 2007.  178pp. Main Library DT15 .A83 2007 : Molefi Kete Asante's Afrocentric philosophy has become one of the most persistent influences in the social sciences and humanities over the past three decades. It strives to create new forms of discourse about Africa and the African Diaspora, impact on education through expanding curricula to be more inclusive, change the language of social institutions to reflect a more holistic universe, and revitalize conversations in Africa, Europe, and America, about an African renaissance based on commitment to fundamental ideas of agency, centeredness, and cultural location. ...In An Afrocentric Manifesto, Molefi Kete Asante examines and explores the cultural perspective closest to the existential reality of African people in order to present an innovative interpretation on the modern issues confronting contemporary society....Thus, this book engages the major critiques of Afrocentricity, defends the necessity for African people to view themselves as agents instead of as objects on the fringes of Europe, and proposes a more democratic framework for human relationships....An Afrocentric Manifesto completes Asante's quartet on Afrocentric theory. It is at the cutting edge of this new paradigm with implications for all disciplines and fields of study. It will be essential reading for urban studies, philosophy, African and African American Studies, social work, sociology, political science, and communication.

Brown, Cecil. Dude, Where’s My Black Studies Department? : The Disappearance of Black Americans from Our Universities. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2007. 139pp. 139pp. Main Library LC2781 .B76 2007 : Blacks have been vanishing from college campuses in the United States and reappearing in prisons, videos, and movies. Cecil Brown tackles this unwitting "disappearing act" head on, paying special attention to the situation at UC Berkeley and the University of California system generally. Brown contends that educators have ignored the importance of the oral tradition in African American upbringing, an oversight mirrored by the media. When these students take exams, their abilities are not tested. Further, university officials, administrators, professors, and students are ignoring the phenomenon of the disappearing black student – in both their admissions and hiring policies. With black studies departments shifting the focus from African American and black community interests to black immigrant issues, says Brown, the situation is becoming dire. Dude, Where’s My Black Studies Department? offers both a scorching critique and a plan for rethinking and reform of a crucial but largely unacknowledged problem in contemporary society.

Conyers, James L. Jr.  Africana studies : a disciplinary quest for both theory and method. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Company, c1997. 237pp. Main Library E184.7 .A315 1997 Known variously as African studies, black studies, African American studies, Afro-American studies, and Africology, the academic study of the African diaspora as a holistic discipline is a relatively new phenomenon. University programs have been created with reference to a disciplinary matrix, retarding the development of appropriate theory and methods throughout Africana studies....Fifteen leaders in the field of Africana studies provide the conceptual framework for establishing the field as a mature discipline. The focus is on four basic areas: administration and organizational structure; disciplinary matrix; Africana womanism; and cultural aesthetics. The work examines both the theory and the method of scholars in African and African-diaspora studies.

Farusa Munashe. "Spelling Our Proper Name : Reconceptualizing the order of Africana/ Black Studies".     Journal of Black Studies.     Volume 40, Number 1, 24-40. SAGE Publications, September 2009 : This article examines internal and external intellectual discourses that have developed around Africana Studies as an academic discipline within the United States from its inception to the present. It explores intellectual constructs and discursive contexts that have shaped the variations, complexities, and contradictions in the conceptualization, scope, and philosophical direction of Africana Studies as a discipline. It argues that the name or names of the discipline should reflect the nature and scope, curriculum content and structure, declared goals and expected outcomes of Africana Studies.

Frye, Charles. "The Role of Philosophy in Black Studies".   Contributions in Black Studies : A Journal of African and Afro-Americajn Studies.  Vol. 4, Article 9 (1980). : A revised version of a paper was presented at the 3rd Annual Conference of the National Council for Black Studies. It argues that philosophical thought and curricula in African American Studies can help "integrate" arts and sciences with self-development.

Gates, Henry Louis Jr. and Burton, Jennifer. Call and Response : Key Debates in African American Studies.   New York : W. W. Norton and Company, 2011.  1235pp.  Main Library E184.6 .C35 2011  : Unprecedented in scope and approach, this collection explores debates about the signal issues of the black experience in the United States from the late eighteenth century to the present. Over 160 primary writings essays, speeches, petitions, editorials, newspaper and journal articles, manifestos, political cartoons, poems, and fiction map the controversies surrounding emigration and migration, black nationalism and separatism, violent and nonviolent protest, black women's rights, the existence of a black aesthetic, the role of religion in the civil rights struggle, and affirmative action, among other key debates.

Hall, Perry. In the Vineyard: Working in African American Studies. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1999. 247pp. Main Library E184.7 .H24 1999 : Hall's insightful analysis of the evolution of black studies programs places them in the context of the broader black Civil Rights Movement and the need for new perspectives in college curricula to replace those that had previously marginalized African Americans. He dismisses skeptics who question the legitimacy of black studies, citing the weight of social, political, and cultural experiences of African Americans, as well as the vitality of academic discourse in the field today. The strongest parts of his book are those that trace the struggle among black studies professionals themselves. Hall examines current intellectual models, including the increasingly popular "Afrocentric" approach, which he finds insightful but limited. Hall offers an alternative "transformationist" model that builds on the ideas of double-consciousness or "dynamic duality" in the African American experience, a combination of Afrocentric and Western forces that shape modern black communities. Hall's work is largely biographical, reflecting his personal experience as an African American studies pioneer with more than 30 years of experience.

Harris, Jr., Robert L.; Darlene Clark Hine; and Nellie McKay. Three Essays: Black Studies in the United States. New York: Ford Foundation, 1990. 29pp. Main Library E184.7 .H29 1990 : Also see Inclusive Scholarship : Developing Black Studies in the United States (pp.85-116) which appears to have an online copy of the report.

Hayes, Floyd W. III, editor.  A turbulent voyage : readings in African American studiesSan Diego, Calif. : Collegiate Press, c2000.  3rd edition, 630pp.   Main Library E185 .T83 2000 : This anthology is designed to introduce the reader to the contours and content of African American Studies. The text and readings included here not only impart information but seek as their foremost goal to precipitate in the reader an awareness of the complex and changing character of the African American experience--its origins, developments, and future challenges. The book aims to engage readers in the critical analysis of a broad spectrum of subjects, themes, and issues--ancient and medieval Africa, Western European domination and African enslavement, resistance to oppression, African American expressive culture, family and educational policies, economic and political matters, and the importance of ideas. The materials included in this anthology comprise a discussion of some of the fundamental problems and prospects related to the African American experience that deserve attention in a course in African American Studies.

Karenga, Maulana. Introduction to Black Studies. Los Angeles: The University of Sankore Press, 1993. 2nd edition, 531pp. Main Library E185 .K27 1993 : Dr. Karenga appears to order the table of contents in the order of the seven basics areas of culture, i.e. Spirituality and Ethics, History, Social organization, Economic organization, Political organization, Creative Production and Ethos. The origin of this cultural structure is developed from the Communitarian African Philosophy, Kawaida, which means, "Tradition and Reason" also created by Dr. Karenga. More on Kawaida Philosophy can be found on page 173 of the I.B.S. The reader of the I.B.S. will also discover that Dr. Karenga uses category's that provides a logic of liberation in suggesting alternatives to the dominant society's views and values, in how they relate to the views and values of African Americans and other Black peoples. After each subject, Dr. Karenga has provided the reader with study questions and an extensive reference list from which further research and study can take place. 1982 edition also available.

Karenga, Maulana. "Names and Notions of Black Studies : Issues of Roots, Range, and Relevance". Journal of Black Studies. Volume 40, No. 1 (September 2009), pp.41-64. : The principle purpose of this article is to bring under critical reflection some of the central issues surrounding and informing current and continuing notions of Black Studies and the ongoing concerns about its appropriate naming. It is a fundamental assumption of this article that the various notions and names of Black Studies are anchored in and reflective of differing concepts of the roots, range, and relevance of the discipline. The issue of roots has to do with the conception of the primary rootedness of the discipline in the African American initiative and experience and the Black Freedom Movement and its emancipatory thrust. The issue of range involves varied positions on the reach and inclusiveness of the discipline in terms of African peoples and its self-conception as a pan-African project. Finally, the issue of relevance raises questions of the intellectual value and viability of the African American initiative and experience as a self-standing discipline in the academy, as distinct from a dependent program or one area of emphasis within a regional study of African peoples—that is, Diasporan or Atlantic Studies—and its marketability as an area of competence.

Leonard, Keith D. "First Questions: The Mission of Africana Studies: An Interview with Hortense Spillers"  Callaloo   Volume 30 (Fall 2007), pp. 1054-68. 

Marable, Manning. “Black Studies and the Racial Mountain”. Souls, Vol. 2, no. 3. (Summer 2000), pp.17-36.

Marable, Manning and Leith Mullings, editors.  Let nobody turn us around : voices of resistance, reform, and renewal : an African American anthologyLanham [Md.] : Rowman & Littlefield, c2000674pp.  Main Library E184.6 .L48 2000 : This anthology of black writers traces the evolution of African-American perspectives throughout American history, from the early years of slavery to the end of the 20th century. The essays, manifestos, interviews, and documents assembled here, contextualized with critical commentaries from Marable and Mullings, introduce the reader to the character and important controversies of each period of black history. The selections represent a broad spectrum of ideology. Conservative, radical, nationalistic, and integrationist approaches can be found in almost every period, yet there have been striking shifts in the evolution of social thought and activism. The editors judiciously illustrate how both continuity and change affected the African-American community in terms of its internal divisions, class structure, migration, social problems, leadership, and protest movements. They also show how gender, spirituality, literature, music, and connections to Africa and the Caribbean played a prominent role in black life and history.

Mazama, Ama. "Naming and Defining: A Critical Link".  Journal of Black Studies.  Volume 40, no. 1 (September 2009), pp.65-76. : Although it came into existence 40 years ago, Black Studies is still referred to by many names today. This proliferation of labels attests that, indeed, the question of naming remains a sensitive one for Black Studies. However, and this is one of the main contentions of the present article, this unfinished naming process reflects a deeper and equally unsettled issue: that of self-definition. Most specifically, it is argued here that as long as Black Studies is primarily defined by subject matter, as it is the dominant practice, rather than by perspective, the naming of the discipline will remain a contentious and tricky affair.

Norment, Nathaniel Jr., ed. The African American Studies Reader. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 2007. 2nd edition, 896pp. Main Library E184.7 .A313 2007 : This book is the most comprehensive anthology in the field. The discipline continues to evolve as to the intellectual, political, and social aspects of African American Studies, and how the discipline will advance knowledge about African Americans for the future. This edition contains new authors, updated introductions to each section and the bibliography, expansion of the glossary of biographies, and review questions and critical analyses for each section. Topics include: The Discipline; African American Women's Studies; Historical Perspectives; Philosophical Perspectives; Theoretical Foundations; Political Perspectives; Critical Issues and Perspectives; and Curriculum Development and Program Models.

Okafor, Victor. "Shortcomings in Wilson's Chronicle of Higher Education Article on The State of Black Studies Programs".   Journal of Black Studies.   Volume 37, No. 3 (January 2007), pp.335-347.  : This article criticizes Robin Wilson’s Chronicle of Higher Education article of April 22, 2005, on Black studies titled, “After 35 Years on Campuses, Black-Studies Programs Struggle to Survive.” It contends that Wilson’s article presents a blend of truths, half-truths, and outright distortions. Contrary to Wilson’s insinuations, Black studies is a liberal arts degree program open to and meant for any interested student of whatever background. The creation of Black studies was not meant to preclude Black students from pursuing degrees in scientific areas. A Black studies major tends to “jell” with and also serves as an important background for a variety of other careers. The fact that some traditional disciplines have now found it worthwhile to introduce peripheral courses on the Black experience, in their quest to be inclusive, cannot serve as a substitute for a holistic, systematic, and coherent approach to the study of that experience.

Philipson, R. "The Making and Unmaking of a White Africanist".  Research in African Literatures. Vol. 25, no. 1 (1994), pp. 93-99.  : A white man who specialized in African literature as a graduate student and in his doctoral studies discusses his failure to find teaching positions. He feels that as long as black studies remain "black" in both personnel and ideology, they will remain powerless, provincial and alienating to the white majority and to other minority groups.

Reid-Merritt, Patricia. "Defining Ourselves: Name Calling in Black StudiesJournal of Black Studies.  Vol. 40, no. 1 (September 2009), pp.77-90.  : What's in a name? For the discipline that has become familiar to so many of us as Black Studies , much can be made of this question. While the study of Black people from multiple approaches and perspectives reflective of African worldviews and orientations is at the very core of the discipline, properly naming the field with a single, unifying designation has remained an elusive goal. In the past 40 years, the multidisciplinary nature of the field has contributed to the ongoing development of new programs and academic units with specialized foci and creative titles to match. This article examines the historical emergence and expansion of the field of Black Studies and the challenges that remain in appropriately naming the discipline and correctly identifying those who portend to be its practitioners. 

Rojas, Fabio. From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. 279pp. Main Library E184.7 .R65 2007 : The black power movement helped redefine African Americans' identity and establish a new racial consciousness in the 1960s. As an influential political force, this movement in turn spawned the academic discipline known as Black Studies. Today there are more than a hundred Black Studies degree programs in the United States, many of them located in America's elite research institutions. In From Black Power to Black Studies, Fabio Rojas explores how this radical social movement evolved into a recognized academic discipline....Rojas traces the evolution of Black Studies over more than three decades, beginning with its origins in black nationalist politics. His account includes the 1968 Third World Strike at San Francisco State College, the Ford Foundation's attempts to shape the field, and a description of Black Studies programs at various American universities. His statistical analyses of protest data illuminate how violent and nonviolent protests influenced the establishment of Black Studies programs. Integrating personal interviews and newly discovered archival material, Rojas documents how social activism can bring about organizational change....Shedding light on the black power movement, Black Studies programs, and American higher education, this historical analysis reveals how radical politics are assimilated into the university system

Rooks, Noliwe M. White Money/Black Power: The Surprising History of African American Studies and the Crisis in Higher Education. Boston: Beacon Press, 2006. 213pp. Main Library E184.7 .R66 2006 : The history of African American Studies is often told as a heroic tale, with compelling images of black power and passionate African American students who refuse to take “no” for an answer. Noliwe M. Rooks argues for the recognition of another story that proves that many of the programs that survived were actually begun due to heavy funding from the Ford Foundation or, put another way, as a result of white philanthropy....Today, many students in African American Studies courses are white, and an increasing number of black students come from Africa or the Caribbean, not the United States. This shift—which makes the survival of the discipline contingent on non–African American students—means that “blackness can mean everything and, at the same time, nothing at all.”...While the Ford Foundation provided much-needed funding, its strategies, aimed at addressing America’s “race problem,” have left African American Studies struggling to define its identity in light of the changes it faces today. With unflinching honesty, Rooks shows that the only way to create a stable future for African American Studies is through confronting its complex past.

Williams, Zachary, editor. Africana cultures and policy studies : scholarship and the transformation of public policyPart of the Contemporary Black History series.   New York: Palgrave MacMillian, 2009.  281pp.  Main Library E185.86 .A338 2009 : This book introduces Africana Cultures and Policy Studies as an interdisciplinary field, rooted in the historical experience of people of African descent. Intentionally, these essays seek to canonize Africana historical studies for the purposes of policy development, analysis, and practical application. Africana Cultures and Policy Studies calls for a relocation and synthesis of policy-derived research emanating from public and private culture spheres. In the process, its goal is to use history and culture to engage the policy process from a top-down and bottom-up approach, thereby dissolving the previously impenetrable divides between theory and practice, academics and policymakers, and community constituencies and related social/civic institutions.

Black Studies Ideological Paradigms, Black Subject, Philosophy, Identity, Gender, and Condition


 

Readings define/map out Black Studies approaches/ideologies (from Black nationalists, to Afrocentric, African-centered, to radical democratic multicultural and integrationist perspectives). Also highlights specific geographical scope (US African American, African continental pan-Africanism, African Diaspora). Also, readings cover Black Studies’ core conceptual variables and philosophical themes that inform a Black Studies disciplinary impetus (Race and Racism, Exclusion, Oppression and Violence, Identity crisis, Hybridity and the Black condition as well as new ‘representation’ themes).

 

Akbar, Na’im. Breaking The Chains of Psychological Slavery. Tallahassee: Mind Productions and Associates, Inc., 1996 (1999 printing). 79pp. Main Library E185.625 .A438 1996 (1999 printing). : Are African-Americans still slaves? Why can't Black folks get together? What is the psychological consequence for Blacks and Whites of picturing God as a Caucasian? Learn to break the chains of your mental slavery with this new book by one of the world's outstanding experts on the African-American mind.

Asante, Molefi Kete. Afrocentricity: The Theory of Social Change. Chicago: African American Images, 2003). 148pp. Main Library DT15 .A6 2003 : The central topic of this cross-disciplinary work is the theory of “Afrocentricity,” which mandates that Africans be viewed as subjects rather than objects; and looks at how this philosophy, ethos, and world view gives Africans a better understanding of how to interpret issues affecting their communities. History, psychology, sociology, literature, economics, and education are explored, including discussions on Washingtonianism, Garveyism, Du Bois, Malcolm X, race and identity, Marxism, and breakthrough strategies. 1980 and 1988 editions also available.

Briggs, Cyril V. (1) "Aims of the Crusader,"(2) "Government of the Negro: By Whom and For Whom," (3) "Bolshevism’s Menace: To Whom and To What?", (4) "The African Blood Brotherhood," and (5) "The Salvation of the Negro," available in the Crusader reprinted by Garland Publishers, 1987.  Main Library E185.5 .C963a vols. 1-6 (1918-1922)

Delgato, Richard and Jean Stefanic. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York: New York University Press 2001). 167pp. Gast Business Library KF4755 .D454 2001 : For well over a decade, critical race theory-the school of thought that holds that race lies at the very nexus of American life-has roiled the legal academy. In recent years, however, the fundamental principles of the movement have influenced other academic disciplines, from sociology and politics to ethnic studies and history....And yet, while the critical race theory movement has spawned dozens of conferences and numerous books, no concise, accessible volume outlines its basic parameters and tenets. Here, then, from two of the founders of the movement, is the first primer on one of the most influential intellectual movements in American law and politics.

DuBois, W.E.B.; edited with an introduction and notes by Brent Hayes Edwards. Souls of Black Folk. New York : Oxford University Press, 2007. 223pp. Main Library E185.6 .D797 2007 : Originally published in 1903, The Souls of Black Folk is a classic study of race, culture, and education at the turn of the twentieth century. With its singular combination of essays, memoir, and fiction, this book vaulted Du Bois to the forefront of American political commentary and civil rights activism. It is an impassioned, at times searing account of the situation of African Americans in the United States, making a forceful case for the access of African Americans to higher education and extolling the achievements of black culture. Du Bois advances the provocative and influential argument that due to the inequalities and pressures of the "race problem," African American identity is characterized by "double consciousness." This edition includes a valuable appendix of other writings by Du Bois, which sheds light on his motivation and his goals. 1961, 1969, 1989, 1990, 1996, 1997, 2004, and 2005 editions are also available.

Domingo, W. A., Garvey, Marcus, Randolph, A. Phillip, et. al. "‘New Negro’ Radicalism, available in Voices from the Harlem Renaissance / Huggins, Nathan Irvin, editor. New York : Oxford University Press, 1976.  438pp.  Main Library PS509.N4 V6 : The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s symbolized black liberation and sophistication--the final shaking off of slavery, in the mind, spirit, and character of African-Americans. It was a period when the African-American came of age, with the clearest expression of this transformation visible in the remarkable outpouring of literature, art, and music. In these years the "New Negro" was born, as seen in the shift of black leadership from Booker T. Washington to that of W.E.B. Du Bois, from Tuskegee to New York, and for some, even to the African nationalism of Marcus Garvey....In Voices from the Harlem Renaissance, Nathan Irvin Huggins provides more than 120 selections from the political writings and arts of the period, each depicting the meaning of blackness and the nature of African-American art and its relation to social statement. Through these pieces, Huggins establishes the context in which the art of Harlem Renaissance occurred. We read the call to action by pre-Renaissance black spokesmen, such as A. Philip Randolph and W.E.B. DuBois who--through magazines such as The Messenger ("the only radical Negro magazine"), and the NAACP's Crisis--called for a radical transformation of the American economic and social order so as to make a fair world for black men and women. We hear the more flamboyant rhetoric of Marcus Garvey, who rejected the idea of social equality for a completely separate African social order. And we meet Alain Locke, whose work served to redefine the "New Negro" in cultural terms, and stands as the cornerstone of the Harlem Renaissance....Huggins goes on to offer autobiographical writings, poetry, and stories of such men and women as Langston Hughes, Nancy Cunard, Helen Johnson, and Claude McKay--writings that depict the impact of Harlem and New York City on those who lived there, as well as the youthfulness and exuberance of the period. The complex question of identity, a very important part of the thought and expression of the Harlem Renaissance, is addressed in work's such as Jean Toomer's Bona and Paul and Zora Neale Hurston's Sweat. And Huggins goes on to attend to the voices of alienation, anger, and rage that appeared in a great deal of the writing to come out of the Harlem Renaissance by poets such as George S. Schuyler and Gwendolyn Bennett. Also included are over twenty illustrations by such artists as Aaron Douglas whose designs illuminated many of the works we associate with the Harlem Renaissance: the magazines Fire and Harlem; Alain Locke's The New Negro; and James Weldon Johnson's God's Trombones....The vitality of the Harlem Renaissance served as a generative force for all New York--and the nation. Offering all those interested in the evolution of African-American consciousness and art a link to this glorious time, Voices from the Harlem Renaissance illuminates the African-American struggle for self-realization (book description).

Domingo, W. A. "Socialism the Negroes’ Hope," available in The messenger reader : stories, poetry, and essays from The messenger magazine / Sondra Kathryn Wilson, editor.  New York : Modern Library, 2000.  418pp.  Main Library PS509.N4 V6PS508.N3 M47 2000 : The Messenger was the third most popular magazine of the Harlem Renaissance after The Crisis andOpportunity. Unlike the other two magazines, The Messenger was not tied to a civil rights organization. Labor activist A. Philip Randolph and economist Chandler Owen started the magazine in 1917 to advance the cause of socialism to the black masses. They believed that a socialist society was the only one that would be free from racism....The socialist ideology of The Messenger "the only magazine of scientific radicalism in the world published by Negroes," was reflected in the pieces and authors published in its pages. The Messenger Reader contains poetry, stories, and essays from Paul Robeson, Zora Neale Hurston, Wallace Thurman, and Dorothy West....The Messenger Reader, will be a welcome addition to the critically acclaimed Modern Library Harlem Renaissance series (book description)

Fanon, Frantz ; translated from the French by Richard Philcox. Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press; [Berkeley, Calif.] : Distributed by Publishers Group West, c2008. 206pp. Main Library GN645 .F313 2008 : Few modern voices have had as profound an impact on the black identity and critical race theory as Frantz Fanon, and Black Skin, White Masks represents some of his most important work. Fanon’s masterwork is now available in a new translation that updates its language for a new generation of readers....A major influence on civil rights, anti-colonial, and black consciousness movements around the world, Black Skin, White Masks is the unsurpassed study of the black psyche in a white world. Hailed for its scientific analysis and poetic grace when it was first published in 1952, the book remains a vital force today from one of the most important theorists of revolutionary struggle, colonialism, and racial difference in history. 1986 edition available. 1968 edition available in Special Collections.

Goldberg, David Theo. Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1993. 313pp. Main Library HT1521 .G55 1993 : Racist Culture offers an anti-essentialist and non-reductionist account of racialized discourse and racist expression. Goldberg demonstrates that racial thinking is a function of the transforming categories and conceptions of social subjectivity throughout modernity. He shows that rascisms are often not aberrant or irrational but consistent with prevailing social conceptions, particularly of the reasonable and the normal. He shows too how this process is being extended and renewed by categories dominant in present day social sciences: "the West"; "the underclass"; and "the primitive". This normalization of racism reflected in the West mirrors South Africa an its use and conception of space. Goldberg concludes with an extended argument for a pragmatic, antiracist practice.

Hall, Ronald E. Discrimination Among Oppressed Population. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellin Press, 2003. 314pp. Main Library HN90.S6 H34 2003 : Though the notion of white supremacy that spread throughout the world with European colonization is discredited in modern society, Hall (Michigan State U.) finds that a strict sense of hierarchy by skin color has been internalized by members of the very populations that were oppressed by it for centuries, and argues that it must be ended before social justice can be achieved. He reports on color discrimination among and between African, Asia, Hispanic, and native Americans; feminists; and gays and lesbians. He also explores dark skin and the media, psychological colonization, and racism in the new millennium.

Harrison, Hubert H. "Two Negro Radicalisms" and "Socialism and the Negro," in A Hubert Harrison Reader / Jeffrey B. Perry, editor.  Ct : Wesleyan University Press, 2001. 505pp.  Main Library E185.6 .H28 2001   : The brilliant writer, orator, educator, critic, and activist Hubert Harrison (1883 - 1927) is one of the truly important, yet neglected, figures of early twentieth-century America. Known as "the father of Harlem radicalism,' and a leading Socialist party speaker who advocated that socialists champion the cause of the Negro as a revolutionary doctrine, Harrison had an important influence on a generation of race and class radicals, including Marcus Garvey and A. Philip Randolph....Harrison envisioned a socialism that had special appeal to African-Americans, and he affirmed the duty of socialists to oppose race-based oppression. Despite high praise from his contemporaries, Harrison's legacy has largely been neglected. This reader redresses the imbalance; Harrison's essays, editorials, reviews, letters, and diary entries offer a profound, and often unique, analysis of issues, events and individuals of early twentieth-century America. His writings also provide critical insights and counterpoints to the thinking of W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington and Marcus Garvey....The reader is organized thematically to highlight Harrison's contributions to the debates on race, class, culture, and politics of his time. The writings span Harrison's career and the evolution of his thought, and include extensive political writings, editorials, meditations, reviews of theater and poetry, and deeply evocative social commentary.

Jones, William R. "The Legitimacy and Necessity of Black Philosophy: Some Preliminary Concerns". The Philosophical Forum  Vol.9, issue 2 (1977/78) pp.149-160.  Main Library B31. P5 vol. 9

Jones, William R. Is God a white racist? : a preamble to black theologyBoston : Beacon Press, c1998.  259pp.  Main Library BT82.7 .J66 1998   Also available online : Published originally as part of C. Eric Lincoln's series on the black religious experience, Is God a White Racist? is a landmark critique of the black church's treatment of evil and the nature of suffering. In this powerful examination of the early liberation methodology of James Cone, J. Deotis Roberts, and Joseph Washington, among others, Jones questions whether their foundation for black Christian theism—the belief in an omnibenevolent God who has dominion over human history—can provide an adequate theological foundation to effectively dismantle the economic, social, and political framework of oppression....Seeing divine benevolence as part of oppression's mechanism of disguise, Jones argues that black liberation theologians must adopt a new theism that is informed by humanism and its principle of the functional ultimacy of wo/man, where human choice and action determine whether our condition is slavery or freedom.

Kelley, Robin D. G.  Freedom dreams : the Black radical imaginationBoston : Beacon Press, c2002.  248pp.  Main Library E185 .K39 2002 : This exciting history of renegade intellectuals and artists of the African diaspora throughout the twentieth century begins with the premise that the catalyst for political engagement has rarely been misery, poverty, or oppression. People are drawn to social movement because of hope: their dreams of a new world radically different from the one they inherited....Our imagination may be the most revolutionary tool available to us, and yet we have failed to understand its political importance and recognize it as a powerful social force. ...From Paul Robeson to Aime Cesaire to Jayne Cortez, Kelley unearths freedom dreams in African and Third World liberation movements, in the hope that Communism offered, in the imaginative mindscapes of Surrealism, in the transformative potential of radical feminism, and in the four-hundred-year-old dream of reparations for slavery and Jim Crow. ...With Freedom Dreams, Kelley affirms his place as "a major new voice on the intellectual left" (Frances Fox Piven) and shows us that any serious movement toward freedom must begin in the mind.

Lott, Tommy Lee, editor.  African-American philosophy : selected readingsUpper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, 2002.  516pp.  Main Library E184.6 .A335 2002 : This anthology brings together a selection of historical and contemporary writings on topics in African-American Philosophy. Questions regarding a wide range of issues--including slavery and freedom, social progress, self-respect, alienation, sexuality, cultural identity, nationalism, feminism, Marxism and violence--are critically examined from different perspectives by well-known philosophers and by non-philosophers from many disciplines. It emphasizes the historical significance of the philosophical arguments within very specific social and political contexts. Features substantial extracts, and in some cases complete works by important 19th- and 20th-century social and political thinkers--organized under sections on Antebellem Critical Thought, Emigrationist and Diaspora Thought, Assimilation and Social Uplift, Contemporary Black Feminist Thought, Civil Rights and Civil Disobedience, Marxism and Social Progress, Rebellion and Radical Thought, Social Activism Reconsidered, Black Women Writers on Rape, and Alienation and Self-Respect. For anyone interested in the African-American experience and American history.

McAdoo, Harriette P, ed. Black Families. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, c2007. 4th edition, 364pp. Main Library and Faculty Collection (1 East) E185.86 .B525 2007 : Following the success of its best-selling predecessors, the Fourth Edition of Harriette Pipes McAdoo's Black Families retains several now classic contributions while including updated versions of earlier chapters and many entirely new chapters. The goal through each revision of this core text has been to compile a book that focuses on positive dimensions of African American families. The book remains the most complete assessment of black families available in both depth and breadth of coverage. Cross-disciplinary in nature, the book boasts contributions from such fields as family studies, anthropology, education, psychology, social work, and public policy. 1981, 1988, and 1997 editions also available.

Marable, Manning, ed. Dispatches from the Ebony Tower: Intellectuals Confront the African American Experience. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. 333pp. Main Library E184.7 .D57 2000 : Collected here are numerous voices expressing a wide variety of political, cultural, and historical views, from black conservatives, black separatists, and blacks who advocate radical democratic transformation. Topics range from race and revolution in Cuba, to the crack epidemic in Harlem, to Afro-centrism and its critics. All 22 contributors are engaged in some aspect of the black intellectual tradition: describing the reality of black life and experiences, critiquing racism and stereotypes, or proposing positive steps for the empowerment of black people. Marable (history and political science, Columbia U.) directs the Institute for Research in African-American Studies.

Mills, Charles. From Class to Race: Essays in White Marxism and Black Radicalism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. 285pp. Main Library HX73 .M533 2003 : Mills argues for a new critical theory that develops the insights of the black radical political tradition. While challenging conventional interpretations of key Marxist concepts and claims, the author contends that Marxism has been _white_ insofar as it has failed to recognize the centrality of race and white supremacy to the making of the modern world.

Pittman, John, ed.  African-American perspectives and philosophical traditionsNew York : Routledge, 1997.  296pp.  Main Library B936 .A37 1997 :  A special issue of "The Philosophical Forum," one of the most prestigious philosophy journals, is now available to a wider readership through its publication in book form.
The volume includes twelve essays in three sections-- Philosophical Traditions; the African-American Tradition; and Racism, Identity, and Social Life. Contributors are: K. Anthony Appiah, Kwasi Wiredu, Lucius Outlaw, Leonard Harris, Bernard Boxill, Frank M. Kirkland, Tommy L. Lott, Adrian M.S. Piper, Laurence Thomas, Michele M. Moody-Adams, Anita L. Allen, and Howard McGary. The introduction is by John P. Pittman.

Robert Reed, Christopher.  The rise of Chicago's Black metropolis, 1920-1929Also available onlineUrbana : University of Illinois Press, c2011. 271pp.  Main Library F548.9.N4 R445 2011 : During the Roaring '20s, African Americans rapidly transformed their Chicago into a "black metropolis." In this book, Christopher Robert Reed describes the rise of African Americans in Chicago's political economy, bringing to life the fleeting vibrancy of this dynamic period of racial consciousness and solidarity....Reed shows how African Americans rapidly transformed Chicago and achieved political and economic recognition by building on the massive population growth after the Great Migration from the South, the entry of a significant working class into the city's industrial work force, and the proliferation of black churches. Mapping out the labor issues and the struggle for control of black politics and black business, Reed offers an unromanticized view of the entrepreneurial efforts of black migrants, reassessing previous accounts such as St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton's 1945 study Black Metropolis....Utilizing a wide range of historical data, The Rise of Chicago's Black Metropolis, 1920–1929 delineates a web of dynamic social forces to shed light on black businesses and the establishment of a black professional class. The exquisitely researched volume draws on fictional and nonfictional accounts of the era, black community guides, mainstream and community newspapers, contemporary scholars and activists, and personal interviews.

Robinson, Cedric. Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. 436pp. Main Library HX436.5 .R63 2000 : Robinson rejects previous studies of black radicalism on the basis that they are founded on European history, which does not include blacks. Although he does trace European Marxism, for him the path of black resistance lies in other areas.

Robinson, Eugene. Disintegration: The Splintering of Black America. New York: Doubleday, 2010. 254pp. Main Library E185.86 .R618X 2010 : The African American population in the United States has always been seen as a single entity: a “Black America” with unified interests and needs. In his groundbreaking book Disintegration, longtime Washington Post journalist Eugene Robinson argues that, through decades of desegregation, affir­mative action, and immigration, the concept of Black America has shattered. Now, instead of one, there are four distinct groups: a Mainstream middle-class majority with a solid stake in society; a large Abandoned minority with less hope than ever of escaping poverty; a small Transcendent elite, whose enor­mous wealth and power makes even whites genuflect; and newly Emergent groups of mixed-race individuals and recent black immigrants who question what “black” even means....Using historical research, reporting, census data, and polling, Robinson shows how these groups have become so distinct that they view each other with mistrust and apprehension. And yet all are reluctant to acknowledge division. Disintegration shines light on crucial debates about affirmative action, the impor­tance of race versus social class, and the ultimate questions of whether and in what form racism and the black community endure.

Roman, Charles Victor. "Philosophical Musings in the By-Paths of Ethnology".  A.M.E. Church Review, Vol. 28, no. 1 (July 1911), p.444.  Available through interlibrary loan.

Solomon, Mark I. The cry was unity : communists and African Americans, 1917-36Jackson : University Press of Mississippi, c1998.  403pp.  Main Library HX83 .S665 1998 : Describes the relations between the early Communist Party and Black nationalists attracted to Marxist views of the role of capitalism in promoting racism.

Williams, Andrea N.  Dividing Lines : Class Anxiety and Postbellum Black Fiction.  Ann Arbor, MI : University of Michigan Press, 2013. 222pp. PS374.N4 W55 2013  Online  : One of the most extensive studies of class in nineteenth-century African American literature. Clear and engaging, this book unveils how black fiction writers represented the uneasy relationship between class differences, racial solidarity, and the quest for civil rights in black communities....By portraying complex, highly stratified communities with a growing black middle class, these authors dispelled popular notions that black Americans were uniformly poor or uncivilized. But even as the writers highlighted middle-class achievement, they worried over whether class distinctions would help or sabotage collective black protest against racial prejudice. Andreá N. Williams argues that the signs of class anxiety are embedded in postbellum fiction: from the verbal stammer or prim speech of class-conscious characters to fissures in the fiction's form. In these telling moments, authors innovatively dared to address the sensitive topic of class differences—a topic inextricably related to American civil rights and social opportunity....Williams delves into the familiar and lesser-known works of Frances E. W. Harper, Pauline Hopkins, Charles W. Chesnutt, Sutton Griggs, and Paul Laurence Dunbar, showing how these texts mediate class through discussions of labor, moral respectability, ancestry, spatial boundaries, and skin complexion. Dividing Lines also draws on reader responses—from book reviews, editorials, and letters—to show how the class anxiety expressed in African American fiction directly sparked reader concerns over the status of black Americans in the U.S. social order. Weaving literary history with compelling textual analyses, this study yields new insights about the intersection of race and class in black novels and short stories from the 1880s to 1900s.

Williams, Robert Gooding.  In the shadow of Du Bois : Afro-modern political thought in AmericaCambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 2009.  350pp.  Main Library E185.97.D73 G664 2009 : The Souls of Black Folk is Du Bois’s outstanding contribution to modern political theory. It is his still influential answer to the question, “What kind of politics should African Americans conduct to counter white supremacy?” Here, in a major addition to American studies and the first book-length philosophical treatment of Du Bois’s thought, Robert Gooding-Williams examines the conceptual foundations of Du Bois’s interpretation of black politics....For Du Bois, writing in a segregated America, a politics capable of countering Jim Crow had to uplift the black masses while heeding the ethos of the black folk: it had to be a politics of modernizing “self-realization” that expressed a collective spiritual identity. Highlighting Du Bois’s adaptations of Gustav Schmoller’s social thought, the German debate over the Geisteswissenschaften, and William Wordsworth’s poetry, Gooding-Williams reconstructs Souls’ defense of this “politics of expressive self-realization,” and then examines it critically, bringing it into dialogue with the picture of African American politics that Frederick Douglass sketches in My Bondage and My Freedom. Through a novel reading of Douglass, Gooding-Williams characterizes the limitations of Du Bois’s thought and questions the authority it still exerts in ongoing debates about black leadership, black identity, and the black underclass. Coming to Bondage and then to these debates by looking backward and then forward from Souls, Gooding-Williams lets Souls serve him as a productive hermeneutical lens for exploring Afro-Modern political thought in America.

Woodson, Carter G.  The mis-education of the NegroTrenton, N.J. : Africa World Press, 1990 (1998 printing).  215pp.  Main Library E185.82 .W86 1990 : Discusses the impact of slavery on the black psyche, questions what and who African Americans are educated for, and explores the difference between education and training

Woodson, Carter G. The mis-education of the NegroWashington, Associated Publishers [1969].  215pp.  Main Library E185.82 .W86 1969 c.6 : Also available.

Yancy, George, editor.  African-American philosophers : 17 conversations.  New York : Routledge, 1998.  358pp.  Main Library B944.A37 A37 1998 : African-American Philosophers brings into conversation seventeen of the foremost thinkers of color to discuss issues such as Black existentialism, racism, Black women philosophers within the academy, affirmative action and the conceptual parameters of African-American philosophy.

Race


Alex-Assensoh, Yvette M. and Hanks, Lawrence J., editors.  Black and multiracial politics in AmericaNew York : New York University Press, c2000. 404pp.  Main Library E185.615 .B537 2000 : America is currently in the midst of a major racial and ethnic demographic shift. By the twenty-first century, the population of Hispanics and Asians will increase significantly, while the black population is expected to remain relatively stable. Non-Hispanic Whites will decrease to just over half of the nation's population. How will the changing ethnic and racial composition of American society affect the long struggle for black political power and inclusion? To what extent will these racial and ethnic shifts affect the already tenuous nature of racial politics in American society? ... Using the literature on black politics as an analytical springboard, Black and Multiracial Politics in America brings together a broad demography of scholars from various racial and ethnic groups to assess how urban political institutions, political coalitions, group identity, media portrayal of minorities, racial consciousness, support for affirmative action policy, political behavior, partisanship, and other crucial issues are impacted by America's multiracial landscape.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. White Supremacy and Racism in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Boulder: L. Rienner Publisher, 2001.  223pp.  Main Library   E184.A1 B598 2001 : Bonilla-Silva is a rising young Texas A&M sociologist who does innovative research on US racial conflict and oppression. In this somewhat disconnected set of essays, he develops original ideas about such important issues as how contemporary racial attitudes are formed, the new color-blind racism spreading across the nation, and the post-Civil Rights Movement structure of the US. Bonilla-Silva is gifted at data analysis and theoretical assessments. "Color-blind racism" is the racial ideology common among white Americans that supports and reproduces continuing racial inequality today. Using a 1998 social survey that he supervised, Bonilla-Silva shows that this color-blind ideology accents abstract liberalism, naturalness of racial differences, and denial of structural racism. White responses to short-answer survey questions on such topics as affirmative action and interracial marriage, which are typically liberal, often differ from the more racist responses given by the same (or similar) respondents to in-depth questions on the same issues.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010.  3rd edition, 301pp.  Main Library   E184.A1 B597 2010 : In the third edition of his highly acclaimed book, Bonilla-Silva continues to challenge color-blind thinking. He has now extended this challenge with a new chapter on ObamaOs election addressing the apparent miracle of a black man elected as the 44th President of the nation despite the fact that racial progress has stagnated since the 1980s and, in some areas, even regressed. In contrasts to those who believe the election of President Obama is a watershed moment that signifies the beginning of a post-racial era in America, he suggests this development embodies the racial trends of the last 40 years including two he has addressed in this book: the rise of color-blind racism as the dominant racial ideology and the emergence of an apparently more flexible racial stratification system he characterizes as Latin America-like. Some material from previous editions, including _Answers to Questions from Concerned Readers,_ _What is to Be Done,_ and an Appendix detailing interview questions, is now available on the Rowman & Littlefield website through the Teaching/Learning Resources link2003 and 2006 editions also available.

Cox, Oliver C. Race: A Study in Social Dynamics. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000.  An abridgement of Caste, class, & race; a study in social dynamics. New York, Modern Reader Paperbacks, [1970]  624pp.  Main Library HT609 .C7 l970 : Original 1948 edition also available.

Crenshaw, Kimberly, Neil Gotanda, Gerry Peller and Kendall Thomas, editors.  Critical race theory : the key writings that formed the movementNew York : New Press : Distributed by W.W. Norton & Co., c1995.  494pp.  Business Library KF4755.A75 C7 1995 :  In the past few years, a new generation of progressive intellectuals has dramatically transformed how law, race, and racial power are understood and discussed in America. Questioning the old assumptions of both liberals and conservatives with respect to the goals and the means of traditional civil rights reform, critical race theorists have presented new paradigms for understanding racial injustice and new ways of seeing the links between race, gender, sexual orientation, and class. This reader, edited by the principal founders and leading theoreticians of the critical race theory movement, gathers together for the first time the movement's most important essays.

Davis, James, F. Who is Black? One Nation’s Definition. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, c2001.  216pp.  Main Library  E185.62 .D29 2001  (1991 edition also available) : The "one-drop rule" (referring to "one drop" of black blood) defines as black "any person with any known African ancestry." Both blacks and whites embrace this overly broad definition, which is peculiar to the U.S. Davis ( Society and the Law ) argues that this "Big Lie . . . causes traumatic personal experiences, dilemmas of personal identity, misperceptions of the racial classification of well over a billion of the earth's people, conflicts in families and in the black community, and more." During slave days and the era of Jim Crow laws, whites used the rule to minimize the potential disruptions of miscegenation--usually illicit or coercive sex between white males and black females--by classifying the offspring as black. Blacks currently accept the one-drop rule, often disapproving of those with lighter skin who "pass" for white or marry across perceived color lines. Early chapters are thick with statistics, and chapter summaries mark the work as a textbook wannabe. However, later sections, such as the gripping narrative of Lena Horne's troubled experiences as a light-skinned black, are enlightening. This is an eye-opening appraisal of an issue often taken for granted in America.

Dawson, Michael C. Black Visions : the roots of contemporary African-American political ideologies. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2001. 410pp. Main Library E185.615 .D394 2001 : This stunning book represents the most comprehensive analysis to date of the complex relationships between black political thought and black political identity and behavior. Ranging from Frederick Douglass to rap artist Ice Cube, Michael C. Dawson brilliantly illuminates the history and current role of black political thought in shaping political debate in America.

Dawson, Michael C..  Not in ourLlifetimes : the Future of Black PoliticsChicago ; London : University of Chicago Press, c2011.  217pp.  Main Library E185.615 .D396 2011 :  In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, polls revealed that only 20 percent of African Americans believed that racial equality for blacks would be achieved in their lifetime. But following the election of Barack Obama, that number leaped to more than half. Did that dramatic shift in opinion really reflect a change in the vitality of black politics—and hope for improvement in the lives of African Americans? Or was it a onetime surge brought on by the euphoria of an extraordinary election? ... With Not in Our Lifetimes, Michael C. Dawson shows definitively that it is the latter: for all the talk about a new post-racial America, the fundamental realities of American racism—and the problems facing black political movements—have not changed. He lays out a nuanced analysis of the persistence of racial inequality and structural disadvantages, and the ways that whites and blacks continue to see the same problems—the disastrous response to Katrina being a prime example—through completely different, race-inflected lenses. In fact, argues Dawson, the new era heralded by Obama’s election ist more racially complicated, as the widening class gap among African Americans and the hot-button issue of immigration have the potential to create new fissures for conservative and race-based exploitation. Bringing his account up to the present with a thoughtful account of the rise of the Tea Parties and the largely successful "blackening" of the president, Dawson ultimately argues that black politics remains weak—and that achieving the dream of racial and economic equality will require the sort of coalition-building and reaching across racial divides that have always marked successful political movements....Polemical but clear-eyed, passionate but pragmatic, Not in Our Lifetimes will force us to rethink our easy assumptions about racial progress—and begin the hard work of creating real, lasting change

Hannaford, Ivan.  Race : the History of an Idea in the WestWashington, DC : Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996.  448pp.  Main Library  HT1507 .H36 1996 c.2 : Hannaford guides readers through a dangerous engagement with an idea that so permeates Western thinking that we expect to find it, active or dormant, as an organizing principle in all societies. But, Hannaford shows, race is not a universal idea—not even in the West. It is an idea with a definite pedigree, and Hannaford traces that confused pedigree from Hesiod to the Holocaust and beyond....Hannaford begins by examining the ideas of race supposedly held in the ancient world, contrasting them with the complex social, philosophical, political, and scientific ideas actually held at the time. Through the medieval, Renaissance, and early modern periods he critically examines precursors in history, science, and philosophy. Hannaford distinguishes those cultures' ideas of social inclusion, rank, and role from modern ones based on race. But he also finds the first traces of the modern ideas of race in the proto-sciences of late medieval cabalism and hermeticism. Following that trail forward, he describes the establishment of the modern scientific and philosophical notions of race in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and shows how those notions became popular and pervasive, even among those who claim to be nonracist....At the same time, Hannaford sets out an alternative to a race-based notion of humanity. In his examination of ancient Greece, he finds in what was then a dazzling new idea, politics, a theory of how to bring a purposeful oneness to a society composed of diverse families, tribes, and interests. This idea of politics has a history, too, and its presence has waxed and waned through the ages....At a time when new controversies have again raised the question of whether race and social destiny are ineluctably joined as partners, Race: The History of an Idea in the West reveals that one of the partners is a phantom—medieval astrology and physiognomy disguised by pseudoscientific thought. And Race raises a difficult practical question: What price do we place on our political traditions, institutions, and civic arrangements? This ambitious volume reexamines old questions in new ways that will stimulate a wide readership.

Horne, Gerald.  The Color of Fascism : Lawrence Dennis, racial passing, and the rise of right-wing extremism in the United StatesNew York : New York University Press, c2006.  229pp.  Main Library  HN90.R3 H578 2006 (Also available online) : What does it mean that Lawrence Dennis—arguably the “brains” behind U.S. fascism—was born black but spent his entire adult life passing for white? Born in Atlanta in 1893, Dennis began life as a highly touted African American child preacher, touring nationally and arousing audiences with his dark-skinned mother as his escort. However, at some point between leaving prep school and entering Harvard University, he chose to abandon his family and his former life as an African American in order to pass for white. Dennis went on to work for the State Department and on Wall Street, and ultimately became the public face of U.S. fascism, meeting with Mussolini and other fascist leaders in Europe. He underwent trial for sedition during World War II, almost landing in prison, and ultimately became a Cold War critic before dying in obscurity in 1977....Based on extensive archival research, The Color of Fascism blends biography, social history, and critical race theory to illuminate the fascinating life of this complex and enigmatic man. Gerald Horne links passing and fascism, the two main poles of Dennis's life, suggesting that Dennis’s anger with the U.S. as a result of his upbringing in Jim Crow Georgia led him to alliances with the antagonists of the U.S. and that his personal isolation which resulted in his decision to pass dovetailed with his ultimate isolationism....Dennis’s life is a lasting testament to the resilience of right-wing thought in the U.S. The first full-scale biographical portrait of this intriguing figure, The Color of Fascism also links the strange career of a prominent American who chose to pass.

Mills, Charles. The Racial Contract. Ithaca: Cornell University Press: 1997. 171pp. Main Library HT1523 .M56 1997: Underlying Western political theory, a black professor of philosophy detects an implicit contract, agreed upon by Europeans and white Americans over the past five centuries, to exploit, oppress, and exterminate non-whites, including Jews.

Painter, Nell Irvin. History of White PeopleNew York : W W Norton, 2011.  496pp.  E184.A1 P29 2011  (2010 edition also available): Traces the idea of a white race, showing how the origins of the American identity were tied to the elevation of white skin as the embodiment of beauty, power, and intelligence, and how even intellectuals insisted that only Anglo Saxons were truly American.

Perry, Imani. More Beautiful and More Terrible: The Embrace of and Trancendance of Racial Equality in the United States. New York: New York University Press, 2011. 248pp. Main Library E184.A1 P42 2010 : For a nation that often optimistically claims to be post-racial, we are still mired in the practices of racial inequality that plays out in law, policy, and in our local communities. One of two explanations is often given for this persistent phenomenon: On the one hand, we might be hypocritical—saying one thing, and doing or believing another; on the other, it might have little to do with us individually but rather be inherent to the structure of American society....More Beautiful and More Terrible compels us to think beyond this insufficient dichotomy in order to see how racial inequality is perpetuated. Imani Perry asserts that the U.S. is in a new and distinct phase of racism that is “post-intentional”: neither based on the intentional discrimination of the past, nor drawing upon biological concepts of race. Drawing upon the insights and tools of critical race theory, social policy, law, sociology and cultural studies, she demonstrates how post-intentional racism works and maintains that it cannot be addressed solely through the kinds of structural solutions of the Left or the values arguments of the Right. Rather, the author identifies a place in the middle—a space of “righteous hope”—and articulates a notion of ethics and human agency that will allow us to expand and amplify that hope....To paraphrase James Baldwin, when talking about race, it is both more terrible than most think, but also more beautiful than most can imagine, with limitless and open-ended possibility. Perry leads readers down the path of imagining the possible and points to the way forward.

Smedly, Audrey. Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview. Boulder: Westview Press, 2007. 3rd edition, 386pp. Main Library GN269 .S63 2007 : In a sweeping work that traces the idea of race for more than three centuries, Audrey Smedley shows that “race” is a cultural invention that began to appear around the turn of the eighteenth century. In its origin, race was not a product of science but a folk ideology reflecting a new form of social stratification and a rationalization for inequality among the peoples of North America. This third edition incorporates recently published new source materials on the history of race ideology. Because “race” now has global manifestations, it also introduces the work of scholars who are examining the spread of race ideology cross-culturally. The new edition of Race in North America also looks more closely at the positions and arguments of contemporary race scientists. Although objective scientists have shown that any two humans are 99.9% alike genetically, race scientists maintain that the remaining difference of one-tenth of one percent is highly significant, accounting for many biological and behavioral differences that they assume to be hereditary. Race scientists contend, for example, that there are race differences in diseases and responses to medications, along with differences in intellect and in talent and ability in such fields as sports. Thus, they claim, race is a valid biological concept. Smedley argues that no amount of research into biological or genetic differences can help us understand the phenomenon of race in American society. Race can only be understood as a component of the sociocultural domain, not the domain of biology. 1993 and 1999 editions also available.

Stanfield, John and Rutledge Dennis, eds. Race and Ethnicity in Research Methods. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1993. 314pp. Main Library GN496 .R33 1993 : Studying across race and ethnic lines creates many problems for the researcher involving practical, strategic, ethical and epistemological questions alike. The contributors to this volume examine the array of methods used in quantitative, qualitative and comparative//historical research to show how ethnic-sensitive research can be carried out....Among the methodological traditions discussed are survey research, demography, testing and assessment, ethnography, discourse analysis, comparative methods and archival research.

Stokes, Curtis, ed. Race and Human Rights. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2009. 271pp. Main Library and Faculty Collection (1 East) E184.A1 R223 2009 : The terrorist attacks against U.S. targets on September 11, 2001, and the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, sparked an intense debate about "human rights." According to contributors to this provocative book, the discussion of human rights to date has been far too narrow. They argue that any conversation about human rights in the United States must include equal rights for all residents....Essays examine the historical and intellectual context for the modern debate about human rights, the racial implications of the war on terrorism, the intersection of racial oppression, and the national security state. Others look at the Pinkerton detective agency as a forerunner of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the role of Africa in post–World War II American attempts at empire-building, and the role of immigration as a human rights issue.

Wise, Tim.  Affirmative action : racial preference in black and whiteNew York : Routledge, 2005.  196pp.  Main Library LC213.52 .W57 2005 : Affirmative Action examines the larger structure of institutional white privilege in education, and compares the magnitude of white racial preference with the policies typically envisioned when the term "racial preference" is used. In doing so, the book demonstrates that the American system of education is both a reflection of and a contributor to a structure of institutionalized racism and racial preference for the dominant majority.

Wise, Tim. Between Barack and a hard place : racism and white denial in the age of ObamaSan Francisco : City Lights Books, c2009.  159pp.  Main Library E184.A1 W57 2009 : For many people, the election of Barack Obama seems to signify the end of racism as a pervasive social force in the United States: they point to Obama as a validation of the American ideology that anyone can make it if they work hard, and an example of how barriers against people of color have all but vanished. But is this true? After all, in housing, employment, the justice system and education, the evidence is clear: white privilege and discrimination against people of color are still operative and actively thwarting opportunities, despite the success of individuals like Obama....Is black success making it harder for whites to see the problem of racism, thereby further straining race relations, or will it challenge stereotypes to such an extent that racism will diminish? Will blacks in power continue to be seen as an "exception"? Is Obama "acceptable" because he seems "different than most blacks," who are still viewed too often as the dangerous and inferior "others"? In this provocative new book, Tim Wise explores how the election of Barack Obama is taking the race debates to new levels.

Wise, Tim.  Colorblind : the rise of post-racial politics and the retreat from racial equitySan Francisco : City Lights Books, c2010. 213pp.  Main Library E185.615 .W557 2010 : This powerful (and certain to be controversial) book takes aim at the common assertion that the election of Barack Obama led the US into a post-racial age. Instead, Wise asserts, the deployment of "color-blind" policies is not only a bad way to implement a progressive political agenda, but they undermine efforts to deal with race-based social and economic inequality and lend credence to right-wing arguments that these inequalities are due to innate problems in black and brown communities. As a remedy, the author suggests color-conscious policy-making as the best way to promote fairness in US society.

Wise, Tim. Culture of Cruelty. San Francisco: City Lights Publishers, 2013. 216pp. on order : Tim Wise is one of America's most prolific public intellectuals. His critically acclaimed books, high-profile media interviews, and year-round speaking schedule have established him as a leading voice for racial equity. In Culture of Cruelty, Wise builds on his fierce critique of racial privilege to discuss a related issue: class disparity and a culture of cruelty that demonizes those in need....As Wise demonstrates, there was a time when the hardship of fellow Americans stirred feelings of sympathy, civic responsibility, and direct support for policies meant to alleviate poverty. But today, mainstream discourse increasingly blames low-income folks for their own situation, and the notion of an intractable "culture of poverty" has pushed our country in an especially ugly direction. Wise shows how the wealthy elite has commandeered discussions about class, moving the nation toward scorn and disengagement from the marginalized....With clarity and precision, Wise not only documents growing contempt for the nation's have-nots, but also explores the reasons for it. In doing so, he demonstrates how classism, racism and sexism are inextricably linked, and how popular culture has contributed to a deepening indifference to those who are struggling. Finally, Wise shows that far from a culture of poverty, it is the culture of affluence and power that deserves the blame for America's economic and social crises.

Wise, Tim. Dear White America : letter to a new minoritySan Francisco : City Lights Books, c2012.  189pp.  Main Library E184.A1 W573 2012 : Wise, an educator and racial justice advocate, presents an analysis of race relations and ideology in the contemporary US, as a letter addressed to its 200 million white citizens. As demographic trends portend a more colorful United States, and as its first black president begins a second term, Wise confronts the white fear of losing cultural hegemony, on the one hand, and the politics of resentment that has been both a real and contrived source of right-wing power in national politics. The book is aimed at a reasonable audience who may describe themselves as "not a racist," but whose assumptions about race and social power make them underestimate or misrecognize racism's persistence in the US.

Wise, Tim.  On White Privilege, Racism, White Denial & the Cost of Inequality.  (Recorded at Mt. Holyoke College, October 2007)  57 minutes.  Available via Vimeo. (Also available via YouTube)  : In this spellbinding lecture, delivered at Mt. Holyoke College in October 2007, Tim Wise, author of White Like Me: Reflections on Race From a Privileged Son offers a unique, inside-out view of race and racism in America. Expertly overcoming the defensiveness that often surrounds these issues, Wise provides a hard-hitting, yet non-confrontational explanation of white privilege and the damage it does not only to people of color, but to white people as well.

Wise, Tim.  On White Privilege, Racism, White Denial & The Cost of Inequality.  Northampton : Media Education Foundation, 2007.  DVD.  57 minutes. on order

Wise, Tim. Speaking treason fluently : anti-racist reflections from an angry white male. Brooklyn [N.Y.] : Soft Skull ; [Berkeley, Calif.] : distributed by Publishers Group West, c2008. 359pp. Main Library E184.A1 W57 2008 (Also available online) : In this highly anticipated follow-up to White Like Me: Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son, activist Tim Wise examines the way in which institutional racism continues to shape the contours of daily life in the United States, and the ways in which white Americans reap enormous privileges from it. The essays included in this collection span the last ten years of Wise’s writing and cover all the hottest racial topics of the past decade: affirmative action, Hurricane Katrina, racial tension in the wake of the Duke lacrosse scandal, white school shootings, racial profiling, phony racial unity in the wake of 9/11, and the political rise of Barack Obama. Wise’s commentaries make forceful yet accessible arguments that serve to counter both white denial and complacency—two of the main obstacles to creating a more racially equitable and just society. Speaking Treason Fluently is a superbly crafted collection of Wise’s best work, which reveals the ongoing salience of race in America today and demonstrates that racial privilege is not only a real and persistent problem, but one that ultimately threatens the health and well-being of the entire society.

Wise, Tim. White Like Me: Reflections on Race From a Privileged Son. Brooklyn: Soft Skull Press, 2008. 191pp. Main Library E185.615 .W565 2008: Racial privilege shapes the lives of white Americans in every facet of life, from employment and education to housing and criminal justice. Using stories from his own life, Tim Wise shows that racism not only burdens people of color, but also benefits those who are "white like him" — whether or not they’re actively racist. Using stories instead of stale statistics, Wise weaves a compelling narrative that assesses the magnitude of racial privilege and is at once readable and scholarly, analytical yet accessible.

Yancey, George. Who is white? : Latinos, Asians, and the new Black/nonblack divideBoulder, Colo. : Lynne Rienner, 2003. 230ppMain Library  E184.A1 Y37 2003 : Current predictions about the inevitability of whites becoming a minority in the United States are wrong, says Yancey (sociology, U. of North Texas), because they ignore the fact that definitions of who are "white" change through time. Whites are likely to remain majority because many of those who are now defined as non-white are likely to inter- marry, assimilate, and accept a majority culture that accepts "white" superiority. This option of gaining "whiteness" will not be open to African Americans, who will continue to occupy the lowest rung in society.

Womack, Ytasha L.  Post Black : how a new generation is redefining African American identityChicago, Ill. : Lawrence Hill Books, c2010.  206pp.  Main Library  E185.625 .W595 2010  (Also available online): "As a young journalist covering black life at large, author Ytasha L. Womack found herself straddling her culture's rarely acknowledged generation gaps and cultural divides. Traditional images show blacks unified culturally, politically, and socially, united by race at venues such as churches and community meetings. But in the "post black" era, individuals do not necessarily define themselves by tradition as much as by personal interests, points of view, and lifestyle. Although grateful to generations that have paved the way, many cannot relate to the rhetoric of pundits who speak as ambassadors of black life any more than they see themselves in exaggerated hip-hop images." "In Post Black: How a New Generation Is Redefining African American Identity, Womack takes a fresh look at the dynamics shaping the lives of contemporary African Americans. Combining interviews, opinions of experts, and extensive research, Post Black will open the eyes of some, validate the lives of others, and provide a realistic picture of the expanding community."

Gender


Bobo, Jacqueline, Hudley, Cynthia and Michel, Claudine, editors. "Gender, Homophibia and Homosexuality". The Black studies reader /  Jacqueline Bobo, Cynthia Hudley, Claudine Michel, editors. New York : Routledge, 2004. 488pp.  Main Library E184.7 .B56 2004 : With an all-star cast of contributors, The Black Studies Reader takes on the history and future of this multi-faceted academic field. This authoritative collection takes a critical look at the current state of Black studies and speculates on where it may go from here. (Book description)

Collins, Patrica Hill. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge, 2000). 10th edition, 335pp. Main Library HQ1426 .C633 2000 : The author discusses how knowledge can foster African-American women's empowerment. In line with her own deepened understanding of the issues since the first edition, she emphasizes Black feminist thought's purpose in fostering both empowerment and conditions of social justice, provides a more complex analysis of oppression, and places greater stress on the connections between knowledge and power relations. New themes include the nation as a form of oppression, as well as a transnational, global dimension. Topics are organized under the headings of the social construction of Black feminist thought, core themes, and Black feminism, knowledge, and power. 1991edition also available.

Collins, Patricia Hill. "Rethinking Black Gender Ideology." Chaps. 4-6 in Black sexual politics : African Americans, gender, and the new racismNew York : Routledge, 2004.  374pp. Main Library E185.86 .C58167 2004 : One of America's most influential writers on race and gender explores how images of Black sexuality have been used to maintain the color line and how they threaten to spread a new brand of racism around the world today.

Constantine-Simms, Delroy. "Is Homosexuality the Greatest Taboo?" in The greatest taboo : homosexuality in Black communities / Delroy Constantine-Simms, editor. Los Angeles : Alyson Books, 2001, c2000.  460pp.  Main Library HQ76.3.U5 G74 2001 : Twenty-eight powerful, provocative essays from academics and writers of all ethnic heritages, genders, and sexuality, including bell hooks, Eric Garber, Seth Clarke Silberman, Gregory Conerly, and Dr. Gloria Wekker-running from 19th-century slave quarters to postapartheid South Africa, from RuPaul to the Wu Tang Clan, from 1920s Harlem to 1995's Million Man March on Washington-provide a clear-eyed societal, cultural, political, and historical view of both the transformation and continued repression of black lesbians and gay men (book description)

Davies, Carole Boyce. "Claudia Jones, Anti-Imperialist, Black Feminist Politics," in Decolonizing the academy : African diaspora studies / Carole Boyce Davies, editor ; with Meredith Gadsby, Charles Peterson & Henrietta Williams. Trenton, NJ : Africa World Press, c2003. 338pp.  Main Library E184.7 .D43 2003 : Decolonizing the Academy asserts that the academy is perhaps the most colonized space. As we enter the twenty-first century, this has become even clearer now that the academy is one of the primary sites for the production and re-production of ideas that serve the interests of colonizing powers. Operating at the macro level in terms of the state and at the micro level in various applications, these interests include the organization of the disciplines, the marginalization of interdisciplinary studies, the re-assertion of masculinities, and the operations of class, privilege, and hierarchy....This collection of essays argues that African diaspora theory has the possibility of interrupting the current colonizing process and re-engaging the decolonizing process at the level of the mind, as emphasized by Ngugi wa Thiong’o in an earlier contribution. In addition, the collection asserts that this will be an ongoing project worthy of being undertaken in a variety of fields of study as we confront the challenges of the twenty-first century. (book description)

Ferguson, Roderick A. "Of Our Normative Strivings: African American Studies and the Histories of Sexuality." Social Text  Volume 23, nos. 3-4  (Fall-Winter 2005) : 85-100.

Fleetwood, Nicole R. "Excess Flesh: Black Women Performing Hyper-visibility." Chap. 3 in Troubling vision : performance, visuality, and blackness  / Nicole R. Fleetwood.  Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2011.  276pp.  Main Library  E185.625 .F544 2011 :  Troubling Vision addresses American culture’s fixation on black visibility, exploring how blackness is persistently seen as a problem in public culture and even in black scholarship that challenges racist discourse. Through trenchant analysis, Nicole R. Fleetwood reorients the problem of black visibility by turning attention to what it means to see blackness and to the performative codes that reinforce, resignify, and disrupt its meaning. Working across visual theory and performance studies, Fleetwood asks, How is the black body visualized as both familiar and disruptive? How might we investigate the black body as a troubling presence to the scopic regimes that define it as such? How is value assessed based on visible blackness? ...Fleetwood documents multiple forms of engagement with the visual, even as she meticulously underscores how the terms of engagement change in various performative contexts. Examining a range of practices from the documentary photography of Charles “Teenie” Harris to the “excess flesh” performances of black female artists and pop stars to the media art of Fatimah Tuggar to the iconicity of Michael Jackson, Fleetwood reveals and reconfigures the mechanics, codes, and metaphors of blackness in visual culture. (book description)

Gill, Tiffany M.  Beauty shop politics : African American women's activism in the beauty industryUrbana : University of Illinois Press, c2010.  192ppMain Library  E185.86 .G494 2010 : Looking through the lens of black business history, Beauty Shop Politics shows how black beauticians in the Jim Crow era parlayed their economic independence and access to a public community space into platforms for activism. Tiffany M. Gill argues that the beauty industry played a crucial role in the creation of the modern black female identity and that the seemingly frivolous space of a beauty salon actually has stimulated social, political, and economic change....From the founding of the National Negro Business League in 1900 and onward, African Americans have embraced the entrepreneurial spirit by starting their own businesses, but black women's forays into the business world were overshadowed by those of black men. With a broad scope that encompasses the role of gossip in salons, ethnic beauty products, and the social meanings of African American hair textures, Gill shows how African American beauty entrepreneurs built and sustained a vibrant culture of activism in beauty salons and schools. Enhanced by lucid portrayals of black beauticians and drawing on archival research and oral histories, Beauty Shop Politics conveys the everyday operations and rich culture of black beauty salons as well as their role in building community.

Gordon, Vivian V.  Black women, feminism and Black liberation : which way?  Chicago, Ill. : Third World Press, 1987.  66pp.  Main Library E185.86 .G63 1987 

Gore, Dayo F.  Radicalism at the crossroads : African American women activists in the Cold WarNew York : New York University Press, 2010 [c2011].  231pp.  Main Library E185.615 .G668 2010 : With the exception of a few iconic moments such as Rosa Parks's 1955 refusal to move to the back of a Montgomery bus, we hear little about what black women activists did prior to 1960. Perhaps this gap is due to the severe repression that radicals of any color in America faced as early as the 1930s, and into the Red Scare of the 1950s. To be radical, and black, and a woman was to be forced to the margins and consequently, these women's stories have been deeply buried and all but forgotten by the general public and historians alike....In this exciting work of historical recovery, Dayo F. Gore unearths and examines a dynamic, extended community of black radical women during the early Cold War, including established Communist Party activists such as Claudia Jones, artists and writers such as Beulah Richardson, and lesser-known organizers such as Vicki Garvin and Thelma Dale. These women were part of a black left that laid much of the groundwork for both the social movements of 1960s and later strains of black radicalism....Radicalism at the Crossroads offers a sustained and in-depth analysis of the political thought and activism of black women radicals during the Cold War period and adds a new dimension to our understanding of this tumultuous and violent time in United States history.

Hammonds, Evelynn. "Black (W)holes and the Geometry of Black Female Sexuality", pp.301-314, in The Black studies reader / / Jacqueline Bobo, Cynthia Hudley, Claudine Michel, editors. New York : Routledge, 2004. 488pp. Main Library E184.7 .B56 2004 : With an all-star cast of contributors, The Black Studies Reader takes on the history and future of this multi-faceted academic field. This authoritative collection takes a critical look at the current state of Black studies and speculates on where it may go from here. (Book description)

Harris, Keith M. "‘Untitled’: D’Angelo and the Visualization of the Black Male Body." Wide Angle Vol. 21, no. 4 (October 1999), pp.62-83.

Hartman, Saidiya. Lose Your Mother: A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route. New York: Straus and Giroux, 2007. 207pp. Main Library DT510.2 .H375 2007: In Lose Your Mother, Saidiya Hartman traces the history of the Atlantic slave trade by recounting a journey she took along a slave route in Ghana. Following the trail of captives from the hinterland to the Atlantic coast, Hartman reckons with the blank slate of her own genealogy and vividly dramatizes the effects of slavery on three centuries of African and African-American history. The slave, Hartman observes, is a stranger, one torn from family, home, and country. To lose your mother is to be severed from your kin, to forget your past, and to inhabit the world as an outsider, an alien. There are no known survivors of Hartman's lineage, no relatives in Ghana whom she came hoping to find. She is a stranger in search of strangers, and this fact leads her into intimate engagements with the people she encounters along the way and draws her deeper into the heartland of slavery. She passes through the holding cells of military forts and castles, the ruins of towns and villages devastated by the trade, and thefortified settlements built to repel predatory armies and kidnappers. In artful passages of historical portraiture, she shows us an Akan prince who granted the Portuguese permission to build the first permanent trading fort in West Africa, a girl murdered aboard a slave ship, and a community of fugitives seeking a haven from slave raiders. Book jacket.Includes information on abolition, Atlantic slave trade, castles, children, cowrie shells, Isaac Cruikshank, Ottohab Cugoano, death disease, dungeons, Dutch slave trade, Elmina, Elmina Castle, Europe, female slaves, France, genealogy, Ghana, Gold Coast, Great Britain, Martin Luther King, Jr., male slaves, Kwame Nkrumah, Portugese slave trade, race, racism, rape, ruling class, Salaga, slavery, tourism, United States, violence, etc.Traces the history of the Atlantic slave trade by recounting a journey the author took along a slave route in Ghana, vividly dramatizing the effects of slavery on three centuries of African and African-American history.

Hine, Darlene C., Wilma King and Linda Reed.  "We specialize in the wholly impossible" : a reader in Black women's historyBrooklyn, N.Y. : Carlson Pub., 1995.  618ppMain Library  E185.86 .B543 1990 v.17  :  In the introduction to this richly textured collection of essays by 30 authors, the editors clearly state their goal: "to reclaim and to create heightened awareness about individuals, contributions, and struggles that have made African-American [women's] survival and progress possible." After three general essays, the material is organized both chronologically and geographically, moving from the colonial era through the 20th century. The experiences considered are those of women from Africa, the Caribbean, Canada, and the U.S. Topics include, among others, African women in the Atlantic slave trade; slave narratives of young women in the 1830s in the West Indies and the U.S.; property owning, free African American women in the South in the 1850s; the role of Mississippi African American women during the Civil War; and the significance of the costumes of 19th-century African American women.

Hooks, Bell. "Homophobia in Black Communities", in The greatest taboo : homosexuality in Black communities / edited by Delroy Constantine-Simms ; with a foreword by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.  Los Angeles : Alyson Books, 2001, c2000.  460pp.  Main Library HQ76.3.U5 G74 2001 : wenty-eight powerful, provocative essays from academics and writers of all ethnic heritages, genders, and sexuality, including bell hooks, Eric Garber, Seth Clarke Silberman, Gregory Conerly, and Dr. Gloria Wekker-running from 19th-century slave quarters to postapartheid South Africa, from RuPaul to the Wu Tang Clan, from 1920s Harlem to 1995's Million Man March on Washington-provide a clear-eyed societal, cultural, political, and historical view of both the transformation and continued repression of black lesbians and gay men. (book description)

Hubbard, LaReese, C. "When and Where I Enter: Anna Julia Cooper, Afrocentric Theory, and Africana Studies". Journal of Black Studies.  Volume 40, no. 2 (November 2009), pp.283-295. : Anna Julia Cooper provides an important, though often overlooked, Africana intellectual history and philosophy in the field of Africana Studies generally and Black women’s history particularly. Many of the studies on Anna Julia Cooper’s life and philosophy have been done outside of the discipline of Africology, and as a result, her work has primarily been placed in the feminist and literary studies field. While it can be stated that her speeches and writings have greatly contributed to the growth of these philosophies, Cooper’s most fundamental and least recognized intellectual contribution is to the establishment and advancement of the Afrocentric discourse. There is an urgent need to recover and reclaim Anna Julia Cooper, her foremothers, and contemporaries who have not been thoroughly discussed within Africana studies as agents of cultural change in their communities and at large. In this article, Cooper’s intellectual thought is situated at the center and examined for its significance to the discourse and development of Africana studies.

Hudson-Weems, Clenora. Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves. Troy: Bedford Publishing, 2004. 4th edition, 158pp. Main Library HQ1190 .H83 2004 : Clenora Hudson-Weems, Ph.D., in her definitive, pioneering book, Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves, explicates a paradigm for all women of African descent in terms of the relativity of her rich legacy of African womanhood and Black women activism. A family centered construct, rather than the common female centeredness associated with women movements in general, Hudson-Weems in this work articulates the true role of the Africana woman within the constructs of the modern feminist movement. In reclaiming, renaming and redefining Black women and their movement, the author, according to C. Eric Lincoln (Duke U. Professor Emeritus), has established herself "as a careful, independent thinker, unafraid to unsettle settled opinion."

Hudson-Weems, Clenora. Africana womanist literary theory. Trenton NJ : Africa World Press, c2004. 146pp. Main Library PS153.N5 H838 2004 : By placing Africana womanism, an evolutionary Africana paradigm, within a literary context, this book expands the layered meanings of this family-centered, race-based theory and applies them to the works and ideas of renowned international literary figures such as Toni Morrison, Paula Marshall, and Buchi Emecheta.

Hull, Gloria T., Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith, editors.  All the women are White, all the Blacks are men, but some of us are brave : Black women's studiesOld Westbury, N.Y. : Feminist Press, c1982.  401pp.  Main Library  E184.7 .A44 : This ground-breaking collection provides hours of enjoyment for the general reader and a wealth of materials needed to develop course units on black women; political theory, literary essays on major writers, guidelines for consciousness-raising about racism, and surveys of black women's contributions to the blue

Johnnetta B. Cole (Author), Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Gender talk : the struggle for women's equality in African American communitiesNew York : One World/Ballantine Books, 2003.  298pp.  Main Library  E185.86 .C58154 2003 (Also available online): Why has the African American community remained silent about gender even as race has moved to the forefront of our nation’s consciousness? In this important new book, two of the nation’s leading African American intellectuals offer a resounding and far-reaching answer to a question that has been ignored for far too long. Hard-hitting and brilliant in its analysis of culture and sexual politics, Gender Talk asserts boldly that gender matters are critical to the Black community in the twenty-first century. ...In the Black community, rape, violence against women, and sexual harassment are as much the legacy of slavery as is racism. Johnnetta Betsch Cole and Beverly Guy-Sheftall argue powerfully that the only way to defeat this legacy is to focus on the intersection of race and gender. ...Gender Talk examines why the “race problem” has become so male-centered and how this has opened a deep divide between Black women and men. The authors turn to their own lives, offering intimate accounts of their experiences as daughters, wives, and leaders. They examine pivotal moments in African American history when race and gender issues collided with explosive results—from the struggle for women’s suffrage in the nineteenth century to women’s attempts to gain a voice in the Black Baptist movement and on into the 1960s, when the Civil Rights movement and the upsurge of Black Power transformed the Black community while sidelining women. ...Along the way, they present the testimonies of a large and influential group of Black women and men, including bell hooks, Faye Wattleton, Byllye Avery, Cornell West, Robin DG Kelley, Michael Eric Dyson, Marcia Gillispie, and Dorothy Height....Provding searching analysis into the present, Cole and Guy-Sheftall uncover the cultural assumptions and attitudes in hip-hop and rap, in the O.J. Simpson and Mike Tyson trials, in the Million Men and Million Women Marches, and in the battle over Clarence Thomas’s appointment to the Supreme Court. Fearless and eye-opening, Gender Talk is required reading for anyone concerned with the future of African American women—and men.

Johnson, E. Patrick. "Feeling the Spirit in the Dark: Expanding Notions of the Sacred in the African-American Gay Community."  Callaloo   Volume 21, no. 2 (Spring 1998), pp.399-416.

Kassindja, Fauziya and Layli Miller Bashir.  Do they hear you when you cryNew York, N.Y. : Delacorte Press, c1998.  518pp.  Main Library  JV6601 .K37 1998 : A true story of persecution, friendship, and ultimate triumph, Do They Hear You When You Cry chronicles the struggles of two extraordinary women: Fauziya Kassindja, who fled her African homeland to escape female genital mutilation only to be locked up in American prisons for sixteen months; and Layli Miller Bashir, a driven young law student who fought for Fauziya's freedom.  Here, for the first time, is Fauziya's dramatic personal story, told in her own words, vividly detailing her life as a young woman in Togo and her nightmarish day-to-day existence in U.S. prisons. It is a story of faith and freedom, courage and inspiration

Keeling, Kara. "Reflection on the Black Femme’s Role in the (Re)production of Cinematic Reality." Chap. 7 in The witch's flight : the cinematic, the Black femme, and the image of common sense / Kara Keeling.  Durham : Duke University Press, 2007.  209pp.  Main Library  PN1995.9.L48 K44 2007 : Kara Keeling contends that cinema and cinematic processes had a profound significance for twentieth-century anticapitalist Black Liberation movements based in the United States. Drawing on Gilles Deleuze’s notion of “the cinematic”—not just as a phenomenon confined to moving-image media such as film and television but as a set of processes involved in the production and reproduction of social reality itself —Keeling describes how the cinematic structures racism, homophobia, and misogyny, and, in the process, denies viewers access to certain images and ways of knowing. She theorizes the black femme as a figure who, even when not explicitly represented within hegemonic cinematic formulations of raced and gendered subjectivities, nonetheless haunts those representations, threatening to disrupt them by making alternative social arrangements visible....Keeling draws on the thought of Frantz Fanon, Angela Davis, Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and others in addition to Deleuze. She pursues the elusive figure of the black femme through Haile Gerima’s film Sankofa, images of women in the Black Panther Party, Pam Grier’s roles in the blaxploitation films of the early 1970s, F. Gary Gray’s film Set It Off, and Kasi Lemmons’s Eve’s Bayou. (book description)

Keeling, Kara.‘What’s Up with That? She Don’t Talk?’" Chap. 6 in in The witch's flight : the cinematic, the Black femme, and the image of common sense / Kara Keeling. Durham : Duke University Press, 2007. 209pp. Main Library PN1995.9.L48 K44 2007 : Kara Keeling contends that cinema and cinematic processes had a profound significance for twentieth-century anticapitalist Black Liberation movements based in the United States. Drawing on Gilles Deleuze’s notion of “the cinematic”—not just as a phenomenon confined to moving-image media such as film and television but as a set of processes involved in the production and reproduction of social reality itself —Keeling describes how the cinematic structures racism, homophobia, and misogyny, and, in the process, denies viewers access to certain images and ways of knowing. She theorizes the black femme as a figure who, even when not explicitly represented within hegemonic cinematic formulations of raced and gendered subjectivities, nonetheless haunts those representations, threatening to disrupt them by making alternative social arrangements visible....Keeling draws on the thought of Frantz Fanon, Angela Davis, Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and others in addition to Deleuze. She pursues the elusive figure of the black femme through Haile Gerima’s film Sankofa, images of women in the Black Panther Party, Pam Grier’s roles in the blaxploitation films of the early 1970s, F. Gary Gray’s film Set It Off, and Kasi Lemmons’s Eve’s Bayou. (book description)

Lorde, Audre. "There is No Hierarchy of Oppression," in Dangerous liaisons : Blacks, gays, and the struggle for equality / edited by Eric Brandt.  New York : New Press : Distributed by W.W. Norton & Co., c1999.  312pp.  Main Library  HQ76.4.U6 D35 1999 : Dangerous Liaisons provides a platform for the leading minds of both communities - including thinkers who straddle both worlds - to debate the volatile subject of the relationship between African Americans and homosexuals. It includes writing on minority relations by well-known historians, political analysts, activists, writers, and philosophers. They address such timely issues as recent high-profile hate crimes against blacks and gays: racism in gay and lesbian rights organizations; homophobia in the black church; the shift in highest rate-of-infection of HIV from the gay community to the black community; and stereotypes in books and films. (book description)

McBride, Dwight A. "Can the Queen Speak? Racial Essentialism, Sexuality and the Problem of Authority", in The Black studies reader / Jacqueline Bobo, Cynthia Hudley, Claudine Michel, editors. New York : Routledge, 2004. 488pp. Main Library E184.7 .B56 2004 : With an all-star cast of contributors, The Black Studies Reader takes on the history and future of this multi-faceted academic field. This authoritative collection takes a critical look at the current state of Black studies and speculates on where it may go from here. (Book description)

McGuire, Daniel.  At the dark end of the street : black women, rape, and resistance : a new history of the civil rights movement from Rosa Parks to the rise of black powerNew York : Alfred A. Knopf, 2010.  324pp.  Main Library E185.61 .M4777 2010 : Rosa Parks was often described as a sweet and reticent elderly woman whose tired feet caused her to defy segregation on Montgomery’s city buses, and whose supposedly solitary, spontaneous act sparked the 1955 bus boycott that gave birth to the civil rights movement....The truth of who Rosa Parks was and what really lay beneath the 1955 boycott is far different from anything previously written....In this groundbreaking and important book, Danielle McGuire writes about the rape in 1944 of a twenty-four-year-old mother and sharecropper, Recy Taylor, who strolled toward home after an evening of singing and praying at the Rock Hill Holiness Church in Abbeville, Alabama. Seven white men, armed with knives and shotguns, ordered the young woman into their green Chevrolet, raped her, and left her for dead. The president of the local NAACP branch office sent his best investigator and organizer to Abbeville. Her name was Rosa Parks. In taking on this case, Parks launched a movement that ultimately changed the world....The author gives us the never-before-told history of how the civil rights movement began; how it was in part started in protest against the ritualistic rape of black women by white men who used economic intimidation, sexual violence, and terror to derail the freedom movement; and how those forces persisted unpunished throughout the Jim Crow era when white men assaulted black women to enforce rules of racial and economic hierarchy. Black women’s protests against sexual assault and interracial rape fueled civil rights campaigns throughout the South that began during World War II and went through to the Black Power movement. The Montgomery bus boycott was the baptism, not the birth, of that struggle. ...At the Dark End of the Street describes the decades of degradation black women on the Montgomery city buses endured on their way to cook and clean for their white bosses. It reveals how Rosa Parks, by 1955 one of the most radical activists in Alabama, had had enough. “There had to be a stopping place,” she said, “and this seemed to be the place for me to stop being pushed around.” Parks refused to move from her seat on the bus, was arrested, and, with fierce activist Jo Ann Robinson, organized a one-day bus boycott....The protest, intended to last twenty-four hours, became a yearlong struggle for dignity and justice. It broke the back of the Montgomery city bus lines and bankrupted the company....We see how and why Rosa Parks, instead of becoming a leader of the movement she helped to start, was turned into a symbol of virtuous black womanhood, sainted and celebrated for her quiet dignity, prim demeanor, and middle-class propriety—her radicalism all but erased. And we see as well how thousands of black women whose courage and fortitude helped to transform America were reduced to the footnotes of history.

Radford-Hill, Sheila.  Further to fly : Black women and the politics of empowermentMinneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c2000.  120pp. Main Library  E185.86 .R26 2000 (Also available online) : How feminism has failed African American women and why they must fight back....Amid the longest-running economic boom in American history and despite the emergence of a significant black middle class, the lot of low-income black people in general-and black women in particular-seems more troubling than ever. Their plight, Sheila Radford-Hill argues in this book, is directly related to the diminution of black women's traditional power as culture bearers and community builders. A cogent critique of feminist theory and practice, Further to Fly identifies the failure of feminism to connect with the social realities it should seek to explain, in particular the decline of black women's empowerment....Further to Fly searches out the causes and effects of this decline, describing the ways in which, since the 1960s, black women have been stripped of their traditional status as agents of change in the community-and how, as a result, the black community has faltered. Radford-Hill explores the shortcomings of second-wave black and white feminism, revealing how their theoretical underpinnings have had unintended (and often unacknowledged) negative consequences for black women's lives and their communities....While acknowledging that African American women have made significant contributions to the black struggle for justice in America, Radford-Hill argues that more needs to be done. She combines social criticism and critical analysis to argue that black women must revive their legacy of activism and reclaim the tradition of nurturing in the black community, proposing specific tactics that can be used to revive the support networks that help determine the obligations of community members and guide how people interact on an everyday level....As a deft account of genesis and effects of black women's diminishing power, and as a sobering analysis of the devastating blunders of feminist theory and practice, this work makes a compelling argument for an "authentic feminism," one that aggressively connects the realities of women's experiences, needs, aspirations, and responsibilities.

Smith, Barbara, ed. Home girls : a Black feminist anthologyNew York : Kitchen Table : Women of Color Press, c1983.  377pp.  Main Library  PS509.F44 H65 1983 : The pioneering anthology Home Girls features writings by Black feminist and lesbian activists on topics both provocative and profound. Since its initial publication in 1983, it has become an essential text on Black women's lives and writings.

Historical Events and Contemporary Issues


 

Readings explore the main issues that define Black people's history and sociocultural relations, including oppression/resistance, discrimination, segregation, inequality, access, inclusion and development, slave trade, segregation, civil rights, colonialism, apartheid, post-colonialism, diaspora migrations and displacement, gender difference/black feminism's.

Allen, James, Hilton Als, John Lewis, and Leon F. Litwack. Without Sanctuary : lynching photography in America.  [Santa Fe, New Mexico] : Twin Palms, 2000.  209pp  Main Library HV6457 .W58 2000 : These pictures are shocking visual testimony to the unspeakable ferocity of violence against blacks in this country in the not-too-distant past. The photos are part of the Allen/Littlefield Collection and are on deposit in the Special Collections Department, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Emory University. James Allen provides notes on the content and context of the photos; Congressman John Lewis provides a foreword; writers Leon F. Litwack and Hilton Als contribute commentary.

Armstrong, Julie Buckner.  Mary Turner and the memory of lynchingAthens : University of Georgia Press, c2011.  255pp.Main Library HV6465.G4 A76 2011: Mary Turner and the Memory of Lynching traces the reaction of activists, artists, writers, and local residents to the brutal lynching of a pregnant woman near Valdosta, Georgia. In 1918, the murder of a white farmer led to a week of mob violence that claimed the lives of at least eleven African Americans, including Hayes Turner. When his wife Mary vowed to press charges against the killers, she too fell victim to the mob....Mary’s lynching was particularly brutal and involved the grisly death of her eight-month-old fetus. It led to both an entrenched local silence and a widespread national response in newspaper and magazine accounts, visual art, film, literature, and public memorials. Turner’s story became a centerpiece of the Anti-Lynching Crusaders campaign for the 1922 Dyer Bill, which sought to make lynching a federal crime. Julie Buckner Armstrong explores the complex and contradictory ways this horrific event was remembered in works such as Walter White’s report in the NAACP’s newspaper the Crisis, the “Kabnis” section of Jean Toomer’s Cane, Angelina Weld Grimké’s short story “Goldie,” and Meta Fuller’s sculpture Mary Turner: A Silent Protest against Mob Violence....Like those of Emmett Till and Leo Frank, Turner’s story continues to resonate on multiple levels. Armstrong’s work provides insight into the different roles black women played in the history of lynching: as victims, as loved ones left behind, and as those who fought back. The crime continues to defy conventional forms of representation, illustrating what can, and cannot, be said about lynching and revealing the difficulty and necessity of confronting this nation’s legacy of racial violence.

Bradley, Stefan M. Harlem vs. Columbia University : Black student power in the late 1960sUrbana : University of Illinois Press, c2009.  249pp.  Main Library LD1250 .B73 2009  (Also available online)  : In 1968-69, Columbia University became the site for a collision of American social movements. Black Power, student power, antiwar, New Left, and Civil Rights movements all clashed with local and state politics when an alliance of black students and residents of Harlem and Morningside Heights openly protested the school's ill-conceived plan to build a large, private gymnasium in the small green park that separates the elite university from Harlem. Railing against the university's expansion policy, protesters occupied administration buildings and met violent opposition from both fellow students and the police....In this dynamic book, Stefan M. Bradley describes the impact of Black Power ideology on the Students' Afro-American Society (SAS) at Columbia. While white students--led by Mark Rudd and Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)--sought to radicalize the student body and restructure the university, black students focused on stopping the construction of the gym in Morningside Park. Through separate, militant action, black students and the black community stood up to the power of an Ivy League institution and stopped it from trampling over its relatively poor and powerless neighbors. Bradley also compares the events at Columbia with similar events at Harvard, Cornell, Yale, and the University of Pennsylvania.

Branch, Taylor. At Canaan’s Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. 1039pp. Main Library E185.615 .B67 2006: At Canaan's Edge concludes America in the King Years, a three-volume history that will endure as a masterpiece of storytelling on American race, violence, and democracy. Pulitzer Prize-winner and bestselling author Taylor Branch makes clear in this magisterial account of the civil rights movement that Martin Luther King, Jr., earned a place next to James Madison and Abraham Lincoln in the pantheon of American history.In At Canaan's Edge, King and his movement stand at the zenith of America's defining story, one decade into an epic struggle for the promises of democracy. Branch opens with the authorities' violent suppression of a voting-rights march in Alabama on March 7, 1965. The quest to cross Selma's Edmund Pettus Bridge engages the conscience of the world, strains the civil rights coalition, and embroils King in negotiations with all three branches of the U.S. government. The marches from Selma coincide with the first landing of large U.S. combat units in South Vietnam. The escalation of the war severs the cooperation of King and President Lyndon Johnson after a collaboration that culminated in the landmark 1965 Voting Rights Act.After Selma, young pilgrims led by Stokely Carmichael take the movement into adjacent Lowndes County, Alabama, where not a single member of the black majority has tried to vote in the twentieth century. Freedom workers are murdered, but sharecroppers learn to read, dare to vote, and build their own political party. Carmichael leaves in frustration to proclaim his famous black power doctrine, taking the local panther ballot symbol to become an icon of armed rebellion.Also after Selma, King takes nonviolence into Northern urban ghettoes. Integrated marches through Chicago expose hatreds and fears no less virulent than the Mississippi Klan's, but King's 1966 settlement with Mayor Richard Daley does not gain the kind of national response that generated victories from Birmingham and Selma. We watch King overrule his advisers to bring all his eloquence into dissent from the Vietnam War. We watch King make an embattled decision to concentrate his next campaign on a positive compact to address poverty. We reach Memphis, the garbage workers' strike, and King's assassination.Parting the Waters provided an unsurpassed portrait of King's rise to greatness, beginning with the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and ending with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963. In Pillar of Fire, theologians and college students braved the dangerous Mississippi Freedom Summer of 1964 as Malcolm X raised a militant new voice for racial separatism. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed segregation by race and mandated equal opportunity for women. From the pinnacle of winning the Nobel Peace Prize, King willed himself back to "the valley" of jail in his daunting Selma campaign.At Canaan's Edge portrays King at the height of his moral power even as his worldly power is waning. It shows why his fidelity to freedom and nonviolence makes him a defining figure long beyond his brilliant life and violent end.

Dagbovie, Pero G. African American History Reconsidered. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010. 255pp. Main Library and Faculty Collection (1 East) E184.65 .D34 2010 : Discusses a wide range of issues and themes for understanding and analyzing African American history, the twentieth century black historical enterprise, and the teaching of African American history for the twenty-first century. Additional topics include the hip-hop generation's relationship to and interpretations of African American history; past, present, and future approaches to the subject; and the social construct of knowledge in African American historiography. An exclamation of definitions of black history from W. E. B. Du Bois's The Souls of Black Folk and a survey of early black women historians lend further dimension and authenticity to the volume. A bold contribution to the growing fields of African American historiography and the philosophy of black history, African American History Reconsidered offers numerous analytical frameworks for understanding and delving into a variety of dimensions of the African American historical experience.

Dagbovie, Pero G. Black History: “Old School” Black Historians and the Hip Hop Generation. Troy: Bedford Publishers, 2006. 264pp. Main Library E184.65 .D34 2006 : Black History: "Old School" Black Historian and the Hip Hop Generation fills a void in African American historiagraphy. It provides straightforward entries into a range of important facets of Black history as a philosophy and concept, an academic field of study, a popular cultural symbol, and as an actual and potential vehicle for social change and black self-empowerment and collective liberation. This book is suitable for hip-hop generation historians, undergraduate and graduate university students, as well as anyone interested in Black history, its past, present and future. Dagbovie revisits and reconsiders the concept of Black history, the ideologies and contributions of many "Old School" black historians, and the status of the hip-hop generation.

Daniel, Pete.   Dispossession : discrimination against African American farmers in the age of civil rights . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013. 332pp.  Main Library HD8039.F32 U626 2013 : Between 1940 and 1974, the number of African American farmers fell from 681,790 to just 45,594--a drop of 93 percent. In his hard-hitting book, historian Pete Daniel analyzes this decline and chronicles black farmers' fierce struggles to remain on the land in the face of discrimination by bureaucrats in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He exposes the shameful fact that at the very moment civil rights laws promised to end discrimination, hundreds of thousands of black farmers lost their hold on the land as they were denied loans, information, and access to the programs essential to survival in a capital-intensive farm structure....More than a matter of neglect of these farmers and their rights, this "passive nullification" consisted of a blizzard of bureaucratic obfuscation, blatant acts of discrimination and cronyism, violence, and intimidation. Dispossession recovers a lost chapter of the black experience in the American South, presenting a counternarrative to the conventional story of the progress achieved by the civil rights movement.

Davis, Hugh. We will be satisfied with nothing less : the African American struggle for equal rights in the North during Reconstruction. I  thaca: Cornell University Press, 2011. 209pp. Main Library  E185.2 .D38 2011 (Also available online) : Historians have focused almost entirely on the attempt by southern African Americans to attain equal rights during Reconstruction. However, the northern states also witnessed a significant period of struggle during these years. Northern blacks vigorously protested laws establishing inequality in education, public accommodations, and political life and challenged the Republican Party to live up to its stated ideals....In "We Will Be Satisfied With Nothing Less", Hugh Davis concentrates on the two issues that African Americans in the North considered most essential: black male suffrage rights and equal access to the public schools. Davis connects the local and the national; he joins the specifics of campaigns in places such as Cincinnati, Detroit, and San Francisco with the work of the National Equal Rights League and its successor, the National Executive Committee of Colored Persons. The narrative moves forward from their launching of the equal rights movement in 1864 to the "end" of Reconstruction in the North two decades later. The struggle to gain male suffrage rights was the centerpiece of the movement's agenda in the 1860s, while the school issue remained a major objective throughout the period. Following the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870, northern blacks devoted considerable attention to assessing their place within the Republican Party and determining how they could most effectively employ the franchise to protect the rights of all citizens.

Dobak, William A.  Freedom by the sword : the U.S. Colored Troops, 1862-1867. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 2011.  553pp  Government Documents Library, U.S. Documents Collection (3 West)  D 114.19:SW 7  (Also available online) : A landmark volume on the history of African American soldiers during the Civil War....The Civil War changed the United States in many ways—economic, political, and social. Of these changes, none was more important than Emancipation. Besides freeing nearly four million slaves, it brought agricultural wage labor to a reluctant South and gave a vote to black adult males in the former slave states. It also offered former slaves new opportunities in education, property ownership—and military service. From late 1862 to the spring of 1865, as the Civil War raged on, the federal government accepted more than 180,000 black men as soldiers, something it had never done before on such a scale....Known collectively as the United States Colored Troops and organized in segregated regiments led by white officers, some of these soldiers guarded army posts along major rivers; others fought Confederate raiders to protect Union supply trains, and still others took part in major operations like the Siege of Petersburg and the Battle of Nashville. After the war, many of the black regiments took up posts in the former Confederacy to enforce federal Reconstruction policy. Freedom by the Sword tells the story of these soldiers' recruitment, organization, and service. Thanks to its broad focus on every theater of the war and its concentration on what black soldiers actually contributed to Union victory, this volume stands alone among histories of the U.S. Colored Troops.

Drake, St. Clair and Horace R. Cayton. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World , 1970. 2 vols. (814pp.) F548.9.N3 D7 1970 : "The facts of urban life presented here are in their starkest form," Richard Wright wrote in the original foreword to this penetrating study of Chicago's South Side, first published in 1945. "To have them presented otherwise would have been to negate the humanity of the American Negro." Nearly 50 years later, sociologist William Julius Wilson wrote that Black Metropolis "allows us to consider the significance of a segregated community heavily populated with working poor adults in contrast with a segregated community largely populated with nonworking adults." Simply put, sociologist St. Clair Drake and researcher Horace Cayton produced one of the most comprehensive studies of an African American urban enclave ever written. As in W.E.B. Du Bois's groundbreaking treatise The Philadelphia Negro, the contradictions and complexities of the Afro-American experience are expertly articulated without Eurocentric bias. Using traditional scientific methods of analysis, Cayton and Drake show the existence of a racial color line that keeps blacks segregated in economics, education, and politics, creating a vital cultural city within a city. More importantly, though, Black Metropolis makes the South Side come to life, with Drake and Cayton's hilarious, idiomatic references to the areas' many social groups--from the clothes-conscious, number-running "Upper Shadies" and the respectable "Race Men" of "Bronzeville" to the hypocritical "jackleg" preachers--and their richly detailed explanations of such phenomena as "passing" and the black Chicago community's interactions with white-led organized crime. 1945 and 1962 editions are also available.

DuBois, W.E.B. Black reconstruction : an essay toward a history of the part which black folk played in the attempt to reconstruct democracy in America, 1860-1880 . New York: Russell & Russell, 1935. 746pp. Main Library E668 .D83 : 1962, 1963, 1969, and 1975 editions are also available.

DuBois, W.E.B.  "Does the Negro need Separate Schools?" The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 4, No. 3, Special Issue on "The Courts and the Negro Separate School" (July., 1935), pp. 328-335.

Dyson, Michael Eric. Come Hell of High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2006. 258pp. Main Library F379.N5 D97 2006 : The first major book to be released about Hurricane Katrina, Dyson's volume not only chronicles what happened when, it also argues that the nation's failure to offer timely aid to Katrina's victims indicates deeper problems in race and class relations. Dyson's time lines will surely be disputed, his indictments of specific New Orleans failures defended or whitewashed. But these points are secondary. More important are the larger questions Dyson poses, such as "What do politicians sold on the idea of limited governance offer to folk who need, and deserve, the government to come to their aid?" "Does George Bush care about black people?" and "Do well-off black people care about poor black people?" With its abundance of buzz-worthy coinages, like "Aframnesia" and "Afristocracy," Dyson's populist style sometimes gets too cute. But his contention that Katrina exposed a dominant culture pervaded not only by "active malice" toward poor blacks but also by a long history of "passive indifference" to their problems is both powerful and unsettling. Through this history of neglect, Dyson suggests, America has broken its social contract with poor blacks who, since Emancipation, have assumed that government will protect allits citizens. Yet when disaster struck the poor, the cavalry arrived four days late.

Gabbidon, Shaun L. and Greene, Helen Taylor.  Race and Crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2005. 2nd edition,  347pp.  HV6789 .G32 2005 : Award winning authors Shaun Gabbidon and Helen Taylor Greene continue to examine the history of how racial and ethnic groups intersect with the U.S. criminal justice system, and investigates key contemporary issues relevant to understanding the current state of race/ethnicity and crime in the United States. This thought-provoking text provides students the latest research and data on White, Black, Hispanic, Asian-American and Native American intersections with the criminal justice system. The unique historical perspective is integrated throughout the text and provides students with a panoramic perspective on race and crime.  Note : 3rd edition (2013) availableHV6789 .G32 2013

Genovese, Eugene D. Roll Jordan Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Pantheon Books, 1974. 823pp. Main Library E443 .G46: This weighty book intends to "tell the story of slave life as carefully and accurately as possible." Less given over to theoretical and topical polemic than Genovese's earlier works on Southern slavery, it is by no means a catalogue. It amplifies Genovese's stress on the humanity slaves were able to preserve through de facto accommodations on the part of both slave and master, through the reciprocal play of "elementary human reactions" across class and color lines, and through the slaves' "strong sense of stewardship" for one another. This is a necessary transcendence of many other historians' dehumanizing view of both slaves and slaveholders, and to it Genovese brings his intellectual expansiveness and depth of feeling as he further documents key points featured in The World the Slaveholders Made (1969) and The Red and the Black (1972): the resourcefulness and egalitarianism of many house servants, the protective, responsible character of many black drivers, the prevalence of family stability and the nourishment Christianity afforded against degradation. Some critics will argue persuasively that Genovese has not done justice to southern slavery's deprivation, brutality and murder. As a matter of page-by-page arithmetic, Genovese certainly places more weight on young folks' play by the cabin door than on "evidence of widespread dirt-eating." The question - raised very differently by Fogel and Engerman in Time on the Cross, whose econometric inferences crosshatch Genovese's view - is one of method and concept in shaping the evidence. The subject will be pursued in debates, and anyone concerned with human development should read Genovese's book to knowledgeably participate.

Glenn, Evelyn Nakano, editor.  Shades of Difference: Why Skin Color Matters. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2009.  299pp.  Main Library GN197 .S524 2009 : Shades of Difference addresses the widespread but little studied phenomenon of colorism—the preference for lighter skin and the ranking of individual worth according to skin tone. Examining the social and cultural significance of skin color in a broad range of societies and historical periods, this insightful collection looks at how skin color affects people's opportunities in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and North America....Is skin color bias distinct from racial bias? How does skin color preference relate to gender, given the association of lightness with desirability and beauty in women? The authors of this volume explore these and other questions as they take a closer look at the role Western-dominated culture and media have played in disseminating the ideal of light skin globally. With its comparative, international focus, this enlightening book will provide innovative insights and expand the dialogue around race and gender in the social sciences, ethnic studies, African American studies, and gender and women's studies.

Goldberg, David and Griffey, Trevor, eds.  Black Power at Work: Community Control, Affirmative Action, and the Construction Industry.  Ithaca: ILR Press, 2010.  265pp.   Business Library HD9715.U52 B53 2010 (Also available online) : Black Power at Work chronicles the history of direct action campaigns to open up the construction industry to black workers in the 1960s and 1970s. The book's case studies of local movements in Brooklyn, Newark, the Bay Area, Detroit, Chicago, and Seattle show how struggles against racism in the construction industry shaped the emergence of Black Power politics outside the U.S. South. In the process, "community control" of the construction industry—especially government War on Poverty and post-rebellion urban reconstruction projects— became central to community organizing for black economic self-determination and political autonomy....The history of Black Power's community organizing tradition shines a light on more recent debates about job training and placement for unemployed, underemployed, and underrepresented workers. Politicians responded to Black Power protests at federal construction projects by creating modern affirmative action and minority set-aside programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s, but these programs relied on "voluntary" compliance by contractors and unions, government enforcement was inadequate, and they were not connected to jobs programs. Forty years later, the struggle to have construction jobs serve as a pathway out of poverty for inner city residents remains an unfinished part of the struggle for racial justice and labor union reform in the United States.

Gordon-Reed, Annette. The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 2008. 798pp. Browsing Collection (1 East) E332.74 .G67 2008 : In the mid-1700s the English captain of a trading ship that made runs between England and the Virginia colony fathered a child by an enslaved woman living near Williamsburg. The woman, whose name is unknown and who is believed to have been born in Africa, was owned by the Eppeses, a prominent Virginia family. The captain, whose surname was Hemings, and the woman had a daughter. They named her Elizabeth....So begins this epic work--named a best book of the year by the Washington Post, Time, the Los Angeles Times, Amazon.com, the San Francisco Chronicle, and a notable book by the New York Times--Annette Gordon-Reed's “riveting history” of the Hemings family, whose story comes to vivid life in this brilliantly researched and deeply moving work. Gordon-Reed, author of the highly acclaimed historiography Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy, unearths startling new information about the Hemingses, Jefferson, and his white family. Although the book presents the most detailed and richly drawn portrait ever written of Sarah Hemings, better known by her nickname Sally, who bore seven children by Jefferson over the course of their thirty-eight-year liaison, The Hemingses of Monticello tells more than the story of her life with Jefferson and their children. The Hemingses as a whole take their rightful place in the narrative of the family's extraordinary engagement with one of history's most important figures....Not only do we meet Elizabeth Hemings--the family matriarch and mother to twelve children, six by John Wayles, a poor English immigrant who rose to great wealth in the Virginia colony--but we follow the Hemings family as they become the property of Jefferson through his marriage to Martha Wayles. The Hemings-Wayles children, siblings to Martha, played pivotal roles in the life at Jefferson's estate....We follow the Hemingses to Paris, where James Hemings trained as a chef in one of the most prestigious kitchens in France and where Sally arrived as a fourteen-year-old chaperone for Jefferson's daughter Polly; to Philadelphia, where James Hemings acted as the major domo to the newly appointed secretary of state; to Charlottesville, where Mary Hemings lived with her partner, a prosperous white merchant who left her and their children a home and property; to Richmond, where Robert Hemings engineered a plan for his freedom; and finally to Monticello, that iconic home on the mountain, from where most of Jefferson's slaves, many of them Hemings family members, were sold at auction six months after his death in 1826....As The Hemingses of Monticello makes vividly clear, Monticello can no longer be known only as the home of a remarkable American leader, the author of the Declaration of Independence; nor can the story of the Hemingses, whose close blood ties to our third president have been expunged from history until very recently, be left out of the telling of America's story. With its empathetic and insightful consideration of human beings acting in almost unimaginably difficult and complicated family circumstances, The Hemingses of Monticellois history as great literature. It is a remarkable achievement.

Hawkins, Darnell F., editor. Ethnicity, Race and Crime: Perspectives Across Time and Place.   Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995.  385pp.  Main Library HV9950 .E87 1995  (Also available online): This book examines both historical and contemporary patterns of crime and justice among white ethnics and nonwhite racial groups in the United States. Researchers have long noted that rates of reported crime and punishment are higher for some ethnic and racial groups in the U.S. than for others. Comparatively high rates of crime have been reported for white ethnic Americans during the past and some groups of racial minorities today. These observations have prompted much public debate and acrimony, but surprisingly little research.

Horne, Gerald.  Red Seas: Ferdinand Smith and Radical Black Sailors in the United States and Jamaica.   New York: New York Press, 2009.  359pp.  Main Library HD6509.S6 H67 2005 (Also available online): During the heyday of the U.S. and international labor movements in the 1930s and 1940s, Ferdinand Smith, the Jamaican-born co-founder and second-in-command of the National Maritime Union (NMU), stands out as one of the most—if not the most—powerful black labor leaders in the United States. Smith's active membership in the Communist Party, however, coupled with his bold labor radicalism and shaky immigration status, brought him under continual surveillance by U.S. authorities, especially during the Red Scare in the 1950s. Smith was eventually deported to his homeland of Jamaica, where he continued his radical labor and political organizing until his death in 1961....Gerald Horne draws on Smith's life to make insightful connections between labor radicalism and the Civil Rights Movement—demonstrating that the gains of the latter were propelled by the former and undermined by anticommunism. Moreover, Red Seas uncovers the little-known experiences of black sailors and their contribution to the struggle for labor and civil rights, the history of the Communist Party and its black members, and the significant dimensions of Jamaican labor and political radicalism.

Hudson, Janet G.  Entangled by White Supremacy: Reform in World War I-era South Carolina.   Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009.  389pp.  Main Library F280.A1 H83 2009  (Also available online): Despite its significance in world and American history, the World War I era is seldom identified as a turning point in southern history, as it failed to trigger substantial economic, political, or social change in the South. Yet in 1917, black and white reformers in South Carolina saw their world on the brink of momentous change....In a state politically controlled by a white minority, the war era incited oppositional movements. As South Carolina’s economy benefited from the war, white reformers sought to use their newfound prosperity to better the state’s education system and economy and to provide white citizens with a better standard of living. Black reformers, however, channeled the feelings of hope instilled by a war that would “make the world safe for democracy” into efforts that challenged the structures of the status quo. In Entangled by White Supremacy: Reform in World War I–era South Carolina, historian Janet G. Hudson examines the complex racial and social dynamics at play during this pivotal period of U.S. history. With critical study of the early war mobilization efforts, public policy debates, and the state’s political culture, Hudson illustrates how the politics of white supremacy hindered the reform efforts of both white and black activists....The World War I period was a complicated time in South Carolina—an era of prosperity and hope as well as fear and anxiety. As African Americans sought to change the social order, white reformers confronted the realization that their newfound economic opportunities could also erode their control. Hudson details how white supremacy formed an impenetrable barrier to progress in the region....Entangled by White Supremacy explains why white southerners failed to construct a progressive society by revealing the incompatibility of white reformers’ twin goals of maintaining white supremacy and achieving progressive reform. In addition, Hudson offers insight into the social history of South Carolina and the development of the state’s crucial role in the civil rights era to come.

Johnson III, Ollie A. and Karin L. Stanford, eds. Black Political Organizations in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press, 2002. 264pp. E185.615 .B5465 2002 Online : For a variety of reasons, contemporary black political organizations have generally been ignored in the scholarly literature on American interest groups. Johnson and Stanford present this collection of 11 papers as a corrective. The contributions are diverse in subject and argument, with examinations of the leadership style of the Nation of Islam, the history and ideology of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the persistence of welfare rights activism, and the political involvement of black churches. Also available in print.

Joseph, Peniel E. Dark Days, Bright Nights: From Black Power to Barack Obama. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2010. 277pp. Main Library E185.615 .J677 2010 : The Civil Rights Movement is now remembered as a long-lost era, which came to an end along with the idealism of the 1960s. In Dark Days, Bright Nights, acclaimed scholar Peniel E. Joseph puts this pat assessment to the test, showing the 60s—particularly the tumultuous period after the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act—to be the catalyst of a movement that culminated in the inauguration of Barack Obama....Joseph argues that the 1965 Voting Rights Act burst a dam holding back radical democratic impulses. This political explosion initially took the form of the Black Power Movement, conventionally adjudged a failure. Joseph resurrects the movement to elucidate its unfairly forgotten achievements....Told through the lives of activists, intellectuals, and artists, including Malcolm X, Huey P. Newton, Amiri Baraka, Tupac Shakur, and Barack Obama, Dark Days, Bright Nights will make coherent a fraught half-century of struggle, reassessing its impact on American democracy and the larger world.

Joseph, Peniel E.  Waiting ‘Till the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America.   New York, New York : Henry Holt & Co., 2006.  399pp.  Main Library  E185.615 .J68 2006 : A gripping narrative that brings to life a legendary moment in American history: the birth, life, and death of the Black Power movement...With the rallying cry of "Black Power!" in 1966, a group of black activists, including Stokely Carmichael and Huey P. Newton, turned their backs on Martin Luther King's pacifism and, building on Malcolm X's legacy, pioneered a radical new approach to the fight for equality. Waiting 'Til the Midnight Hour is a history of the Black Power movement, that storied group of men and women who would become American icons of the struggle for racial equality....Peniel E. Joseph traces the history of the men and women of the movement--many of them famous or infamous, others forgotten. Waiting 'Til the Midnight Hour begins in Harlem in the 1950s, where, despite the Cold War's hostile climate, black writers, artists, and activists built a new urban militancy that was the movement's earliest incarnation. In a series of character-driven chapters, we witness the rise of Black Power groups such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panthers, and with them, on both coasts of the country, a fundamental change in the way Americans understood the unfinished business of racial equality and integration....Drawing on original archival research and more than sixty original oral histories, this narrative history vividly invokes the way in which Black Power redefined black identity and culture and in the process redrew the landscape of American race relations.

Lazerow, Jama and Yohuru Williams, editors.  In Search of the Black Panther Party: New Perspectives on a Revolutionary Movement. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.  390pp.  Main Library E185.615 I453 2006 : Controversy swirled around the Black Panthers from the moment the revolutionary black nationalist Party was founded in Oakland, California, in 1966. Since that time, the group that J. Edgar Hoover called “the single greatest threat to the nation’s internal security” has been celebrated and denigrated, deified and vilified. Rarely, though, has it received the sort of nuanced analysis offered in this rich interdisciplinary collection. Historians, along with scholars in the fields of political science, English, sociology, and criminal justice, examine the Panthers and their present-day legacy with regard to revolutionary violence, radical ideology, urban politics, popular culture, and the media. The essays consider the Panthers as distinctly American revolutionaries, as the products of specific local conditions, and as parts of other movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s....One contributor evaluates the legal basis of the Panthers’ revolutionary struggle, explaining how they utilized and critiqued the language of the Constitution. Others explore the roles of individuals, looking at a one-time Panther imprisoned for a murder he did not commit and an FBI agent who monitored the activities of the Panthers’ Oakland branch. Contributors assess the Panthers’ relations with Students for a Democratic Society, the Young Lords, the Brown Berets, and the Peace and Freedom Party. They discuss the Party’s use of revolutionary aesthetics, and they show how the Panthers manipulated and were manipulated by the media. Illuminating some of the complexities involved in placing the Panthers in historical context, this collection demonstrates that the scholarly search for the Black Panthers has only just begun

Lewis, Catherine M. and Lewis, J. Richard, eds.  Women and Slavery in America: A Documentary History.    Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2011.  318pp. HT1048 .W66X 2011 (Also available online) : Women and Slavery offers readers an opportunity to examine the establishment, growth, and evolution of slavery in the United States as it impacted women-enslaved and free, African American and white, wealthy and poor, northern and southern. The primary documents-including newspaper articles, broadsides, cartoons, pamphlets, speeches, photographs, memoirs, and editorials-are organized thematically and represent cultural, political, religious, economic, and social perspectives on this dark and complex period in American history.

Locke, Alain, ed. The New Negro : Voices of the Harlem Renaissance. New York : Simon and Schuster, 1997. 452pp. Main Library PS 153 .N5 L63 1997 : An interpretative anthology that acted as a manifesto for the Harlem Renaissance defines the artistic and social goals of the New Negro Movement of the 1920s.

McGuire, Danielle L. At the dark end of the street : black women, rape, and resistance : a new history of the civil rights movement from Rosa Parks to the rise of black power. New York: Knopf, 2010. 324pp. Main Library E185.61 .M4777 2010 : Rosa Parks was often described as a sweet and reticent elderly woman whose tired feet caused her to defy segregation on Montgomery's city buses, and whose supposedly solitary, spontaneous act sparked the 1955 bus boycott that gave birth to the civil rights movement....The truth of who Rosa Parks was and what really lay beneath the 1955 boycott is far different from anything previously written....In this groundbreaking and important book, Danielle McGuire writes about the rape in 1944 of a twenty-four-year-old mother and sharecropper, Recy Taylor, who strolled toward home after an evening of singing and praying at the Rock Hill Holiness Church in Abbeville, Alabama. Seven white men, armed with knives and shotguns, ordered the young woman into their green Chevrolet, raped her, and left her for dead. The president of the local NAACP branch office sent his best investigator and organizer to Abbeville. Her name was Rosa Parks. In taking on this case, Parks helped to launch a movement that ultimately changed the world....The author gives us the never-before-told history of how the civil rights movement began; how it was in part started in protest against the ritualistic rape of black women by white men who used economic intimidation, sexual violence, and terror to derail the freedom movement; and how those forces persisted unpunished throughout the Jim Crow era when white men assaulted black women to enforce rules of racial and economic hierarchy. Black women's protests against sexual assault and interracial rape fueled civil rights campaigns throughout the South that began during World War II and went through to the Black Power movement. The Montgomery bus boycott was the baptism, not the birth, of that struggle....At the Dark End of the Street describes the decades of degradation black women on the Montgomery city buses endured on their way to cook and clean for their white bosses. It reveals how Rosa Parks, by 1955 one of the most radical activists in Alabama, had had enough. "There had to be a stopping place," she said, "and this seemed to be the place for me to stop being pushed around." Parks refused to move from her seat on the bus, was arrested, and, with fierce activist Jo Ann Robinson, organized a bus boycott....The protest, intended to last for twenty-four hours, became a yearlong struggle for dignity and justice. It broke the back of the Montgomery city bus lines and bankrupted the company....We see how and why Rosa Parks, instead of becoming a leader of the movement she helped to start, was turned into a symbol of virtuous black womanhood, sainted and celebrated for her quiet dignity, prim demeanor, and middle-class propriety, her radicalism all but erased. And we see as well how thousands of black women whose courage and fortitude helped to transform America were reduced to the footnotes of history. A controversial, moving, and courageous book.

McLemee, Scott, ed. C.L.R. James on the ‘Negro Question’. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996. 154pp. E185 .J326 1996eb Online : The first collection of writings on African-American topics by this internationally influential pan-African thinker. Also available in print.

Mitchell, Koritha. Living with Lynching: African American Lynching Plays, Performance, and Citizenship, 1890-1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011.  251pp.  PS338.N4 M455 2011 : Demonstrates that popular lynching plays were mechanisms through which African American communities survived actual and photographic mob violence. Often available in periodicals, lynching plays were read aloud or acted out by black church members, schoolchildren, and families. Koritha Mitchell shows that African Americans performed and read the scripts in community settings to certify to each other that lynch victims were not the isolated brutes that dominant discourses made them out to be. Instead, the play scripts often described victims as honorable heads of household being torn from model domestic units by white violence....In closely analyzing the political and spiritual uses of black theatre during the Progressive Era, Mitchell demonstrates that audiences were shown affective ties in black families, a subject often erased in mainstream images of African Americans. Examining lynching plays as archival texts that embody and reflect broad networks of sociocultural activism and exchange in the lives of black Americans, Mitchell finds that audiences were rehearsing and improvising new ways of enduring in the face of widespread racial terrorism. Images of the black soldier, lawyer, mother, and wife helped readers assure each other that they were upstanding individuals who deserved the right to participate in national culture and politics. These powerful community coping efforts helped African Americans band together and withstand the nation's rejection of them as viable citizens.

Myers, Amrita, Chakrabarti. Forging Freedom: Black Women and the Pursuit of Liberty in Antebellum Charleston (Gender and American Culture). Charleston, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.  267pp.  Main Library F279.C49 N458 2011 (Also available online) : For black women in antebellum Charleston, freedom was not a static legal category but a fragile and contingent experience. In this deeply researched social history, Amrita Chakrabarti Myers analyzes the ways in which black women in Charleston acquired, defined, and defended their own vision of freedom....Drawing on legislative and judicial materials, probate data, tax lists, church records, family papers, and more, Myers creates detailed portraits of individual women while exploring how black female Charlestonians sought to create a fuller freedom by improving their financial, social, and legal standing. Examining both those who were officially manumitted and those who lived as free persons but lacked official documentation, Myers reveals that free black women filed lawsuits and petitions, acquired property (including slaves), entered into contracts, paid taxes, earned wages, attended schools, and formed familial alliances with wealthy and powerful men, black and white--all in an effort to solidify and expand their freedom. Never fully free, black women had to depend on their skills of negotiation in a society dedicated to upholding both slavery and patriarchy. Forging Freedom examines the many ways in which Charleston's black women crafted a freedom of their own design instead of accepting the limited existence imagined for them by white Southerners.

Noguera, Pedro. The Trouble With Black Boys : And Other Other Reflections on Race, Equity, and the Future of Public Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008. 324pp. Main Library LC213.2 .N64 2008 : Influenced by culture and aware of the lack of prospects for them, black boys in particular, but minority students of all kinds, make the kinds of poor choices that fulfill the low expectations of their teachers and the broader society. Education professor Noguera examines the cultural, societal—and personal—factors that create the stubborn link between race and poverty. In this compelling series of essays, Noguera cites research and his own personal experience—as a minority, a father, and an educator—to explore the myriad ways that young black and Hispanic males are expected to run afoul of middle-class American norms and often do. He argues that public schools, despite their abysmal record, are the only institutions with the access and resources to turn around troubling social trends. He points to research comparing the disciplinary tactics of public schools and prisons, institutions that have far too much in common with so many male minority students dropping out of schools and landing in prison. A thoughtful look at issues of race and educational equity.

Nystrom, Justin A.  New Orleans after the Civil War: Race, Politics, and a New Birth of Freedom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010. F379.N557 N97 2010 : We often think of Reconstruction as an unfinished revolution. Justin A. Nystrom’s original study of the aftermath of emancipation in New Orleans takes a different perspective, arguing that the politics of the era were less of a binary struggle over political supremacy and morality than they were about a quest for stability in a world rendered uncertain and unfamiliar by the collapse of slavery....Commercially vibrant and racially unique before the Civil War, New Orleans after secession and following Appomattox provides an especially interesting case study in political and social adjustment. Taking a generational view and using longitudinal studies of some of the major political players of the era, Nystrom asks fundamentally new questions about life in the post–Civil War South: Who would emerge as leaders in the prostrate but economically ambitious city? How would whites who differed over secession come together over postwar policy? Where would the mixed-race middle class and newly freed slaves fit in the new order? Nystrom follows not only the period’s broad contours and occasional bloody conflicts but also the coalition building and the often surprising liaisons that formed to address these and related issues. His unusual approach breaks free from the worn stereotypes of Reconstruction to explore the uncertainty, self-doubt, and moral complexity that haunted Southerners after the war....This probing look at a generation of New Orleanians and how they redefined a society shattered by the Civil War engages historical actors on their own terms and makes real the human dimension of life during this difficult period in American history.

Reverby, Susan. Examining Tuskegee: The Infamous Syphilis Study and Its Legacy. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2009. 384pp. Main Library R853.H8 R48 2009: The forty-year "Tuskegee" Syphilis Study has become the American metaphor for medical racism, government malfeasance, and physician arrogance. The subject of histories, films, rumors, and political slogans, it provoked an official federal apology from President Bill Clinton in a White House ceremony....Susan M. Reverby offers a comprehensive analysis of the notorious study of untreated syphilis, which took place in and around Tuskegee, Alabama, from the 1930s through the 1970s. The study involved hundreds of African American men, most of whom were told by doctors from the U.S. Public Health Service that they were being treated, not just watched, for their late-stage syphilis. Reverby examines the study and its aftermath from multiple perspectives to explain what happened and why the study has such power in our collective memory. She follows the study's repercussions in facts and fictions.

Rice, Stephen and White, Michael. Race, Ethnicity and Policing: New and Essential Readings. New York: New York University Press, 2010.  535pp.  Main Library HV7936.R3 R29 2010 (Also available online) : From Rodney King and “driving while black” to claims of targeting of undocumented Latino immigrants, relationships surrounding race, ethnicity, and the police have faced great challenge. Race, Ethnicity, and Policing includes both classic pieces and original essays that provide the reader with a comprehensive, even-handed sense of the theoretical underpinnings, methodological challenges, and existing research necessary to understand the problems associated with racial and ethnic profiling and police bias. This path-breaking volume affords a holistic approach to the topic, guiding readers through the complexity of these issues, making clear the ecological and political contexts that surround them, and laying the groundwork for future discussions. The seminal and forward-thinking twenty-two essays clearly illustrate that equitable treatment of citizens across racial and ethnic groups by police is one of the most critical components of a successful democracy, and that it is only when agents of social control are viewed as efficient, effective, and legitimate that citizens will comply with the laws that govern their society.

Rickford, John and Russel Rickford. Spoken Soul : The Story of Black English. New York: Wiley & Sons, 2000. 267pp. PE3102.N42 R54 2000eb Online : Recounts the history of Black English, describes its influence on American language and society, and discusses the controversies that have arisen over its teaching and use. Also available in print.

Schneider, Mark R.  African Americans in the Jazz Age: A Decade of Struggle and Promise (The African American History Series). Lanham, MD Rowman & Littlefield Publishers (August 17, 2006).  165pp.  Main Library E185.6 .S36 2006 : The victorious end to the first World War offered hope to African Americans who had fought for freedom abroad and hoped to find it at home. Mark R. Schneider recounts the history of this turbulent era, paying particular attention to the ways in which African Americans actively challenged Jim Crow and firmly expressed pride in their heritage.

Thompson, Shirley E.   Exiles at Home: The Struggle to Become American in Creole New Orleans. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2009. 362pp. Main Library F379.N59 C878 2009 : New Orleans has always captured our imagination as an exotic city in its racial ambiguity and pursuit of les bons temps. Despite its image as a place apart, the city played a key role in nineteenth-century America as a site for immigration and pluralism, the quest for equality, and the centrality of self-making....In both the literary imagination and the law, creoles of color navigated life on a shifting color line. As they passed among various racial categories and through different social spaces, they filtered for a national audience the meaning of the French Revolution, the Haitian Revolution of 1804, the Civil War and Reconstruction, and de jure segregation....Shirley Thompson offers a moving study of a world defined by racial and cultural double consciousness. In tracing the experiences of creoles of color, she illuminates the role ordinary Americans played in shaping an understanding of identity and belonging.

Vaca, Nicolas C. The Presumed Alliance: The Unspoken Conflict Between Latinos and Blacks and What it Means for America. New York: Rayo, 2004. 238pp. Main Library E185.615 .V33 2004 : As Latino and African Americans increasingly live side by side in large urban centers, as well as in suburban clusters, the idealized concept of a "Rainbow Coalition" would suggest that these two disenfranchised groups are natural political allies. Indeed, as the number of Latinos has increased dramatically over the last ten years, competition over power and resources between these two groups has led to surprisingly antagonistic and uncooperative interactions. Many African Americans now view Latinos, because of their growth in numbers, as a threat to their social, economic, and political gains....Vaca debunks the myth of "The Great Union" and offers the hope he believes each community could learn from, in order to achieve a mutually agreed upon agenda. More than simply unveiling the problem, The Presumed Alliance offers optimistic solutions to the future relations between Latino and Black America.

Van Horne, Winston A., ed. “Introduction, Ch. 1, 2 and 3”. Global Convulsions: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth Century. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997. 364pp. Main Library HT1521 .G54 1997 : Contains 16 contributions addressing an array of problems and issues, organized into three sections: concepts and images of race, ethnicity, and nationalism; national identity and the struggle for national rights; and nationalism and the crisis of the multiethnic/multinational state. Topics include the Bell Curve; the role of religion in the cultural foundations of ethnonationalism; national identity and rights in Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and Central Asia; and the issue of ethnonationalism in Yugoslavia, China, the Baltic, Russia, Nigeria, and Canada.

Historical Events and Contemporary Issues, Part 2

Walker, Samuel, Cassia Spohn, Miriam DeLone. The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2012.  537pp.  Main Library HV9950 .W33 2012 : Comprehensive and balanced, The Color of Justice is the definitive book on current research and theories of racial and ethnic discrimination within America's Criminal Justice system. The best and the most recent research on patterns of criminal behavior and victimization, police practices, court processing and sentencing, the death penalty, and correctional programs are covered giving students the facts and theoretical foundation they need to make their own informed decisions about discrimination in the system. Uniquely unbiased, The Color of Justicemakes every effort to incorporate discussion of all major race groups found in the United States

West, Cornel. Race Matters. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001. 108pp. Main Library E185.615 .W43 2001 : First published in 1993 on the one-year anniversary of the L.A. riots, Race Matters has since become an American classic. Beacon Press is proud to present this hardcover edition with a new introduction by Cornel West. The issues that it addresses are as controversial and urgent as before, and West's insights remain fresh, exciting, and timely. Now more than ever, Race Matters is a book for all Americans—one that will help us build a genuine multiracial democracy. 1993 edition available in print and online and on audiocassettes.

Western, Bruce.  Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006.  247pp.  Main Library HV9471 .W47 2006 : Western's extensive research reports that the lowest-level crime rates are associated with skyrocketing incarceration rates in the 1990s, and definitively concludes that the linkage is not causal. Holistic research has identified connections between race, employment opportunities, educational levels, and inner-city life and chances of incarceration, impacting a significant segment of African Americans. Mass incarceration is eliminating the gains accrued by African Americans via civil rights legislation. Recent books (Joan Petersilia, When Prisoners Come Home, CH, Dec'03, 41-2504; Michael Jacobson, Downsizing Prisons, CH, Jan'06, 43-3094; Michael Tonry (ed.), The Future of Imprisonment, CH, Feb'05, 42-3734; John Laub and Robert Sampson, Shared Beginnings, CH, Jul'04, 41-6858) provide a supportive foundation for this research. In part 1, three chapters explain mass incarceration, linkage with inequality, and the politics-economics in punitive response in the criminal justice system. In part 2, Western (Princeton Univ.) details this policy's impact on African Americans and reports on adolescent life, opportunity structure, marriage and family affiliations, and other crime causal factors. The last chapter directly addresses the question, did the prison boom cause the crime drop? The answer is no. The discussion is easily understood, there is an excellent organizational focus on key questions, and the responses are clearly written. Splendid relevant bibliography.

Williams, Dianne.  Race, Ethnicity and Crime: Alternate Perspectives. New York: Algora Publishing, 2012.  HT1521 .W535 2012  Online :  Melting pot or tossed salad? the U.S. criminal justice system may prove to be fueling intolerance rather than enabling society to accommodate racial and ethnic differences. This fresh new textbook to balance theory and the real world, addressing topics relating to race, ethnicity, criminality and criminalization, looking at the criminal justice system, the media, and the death penalty. In addition to information on crime and incarceration rates, White-collar crime, and the "typical criminal," the discussion of minorities and public perceptions is set within a broader context including the issues of terrorism and human trafficking, where race and ethnicity are also vital to public perceptions. the manual is designed for junior colleges and four year colleges, including those offering distance-learning courses. It is a thought-provoking combination of facts and questions. the pedagogical focus is on collaborative, problem-based learning, with foundational support for the development of critical thinking and analytical skills.

Williams, Yohuru. Black Politics/White Power: Civil Rights, Black Power and the Black Panthers in New Haven. Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub., 2008. 189pp. Main Library F104.N69 N49 2008 : The popular media have portrayed the Black Panthers mainly for the rhetoric of violence some members employed and for the associations between the Panthers and a black militancy drawing on racial hostility to whites in general. Overlooked have been the efforts that branches of the organization undertook for practical economic and social progress within African-American neighborhoods, frequently in alliance with whites. Yohuru Williams' study of black politics in New Haven culminating in the arrival of the Panthers argues that the increasing militancy in the black community there was motivated not by abstractions of black cultural integrity but by the continuing frustrations the leadership suffered in its dealings with the city's white liberal establishment. Black Politics/White Poweris an important contribution to a discovery of the complexities of racial politics during the angry late sixties and early seventies.

Slavery

Araujo, Ana Lucia, ed.  Politics of Memory: Making Slavery Visible in the Public Space. New York: Routledge, 2012.  296pp.  Main Library HT871 .P65 2012 : The public memory of slavery and the Atlantic slave trade, which some years ago could be observed especially in North America, has slowly emerged into a transnational phenomenon now encompassing Europe, Africa, and Latin America, and even Asia – allowing the populations of African descent, organized groups, governments, non-governmental organizations and societies in these different regions to individually and collectively update and reconstruct the slave past. .... This edited volume examines the recent transnational emergence of the public memory of slavery, shedding light on the work of memory produced by groups of individuals who are descendants of slaves. The chapters in this book explore how the memory of the enslaved and slavers is shaped and displayed in the public space not only in the former slave societies but also in the regions that provided captives to the former American colonies and European metropoles. Through the analysis of exhibitions, museums, monuments, accounts, and public performances, the volume makes sense of the political stakes involved in the phenomenon of memorialization of slavery and the slave trade in the public sphere.

Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. 414pp. Main Library E443 .B55 1979 : Taking into account the major recent studies, this volume presents an updated analysis of the life of the black slave--his African heritage, culture, family, acculturation, behavior, religion, and personality. 1972 edition also available.

Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2011. 9th edition, 710pp. Main Library E185 .F8266 2011 : The preeminent history of African-Americans, this best-selling text charts the journey of African-Americans from their origins in the civilizations of Africa, through slavery in the Western Hemisphere, their struggle for freedom in the West Indies, Latin America, and the United States, to the election of our first African American president. The ninth edition of this best-selling text has been thoroughly rewritten and reorganized to reflect the most current scholarship on African-American history. Beginning with greater coverage of ancestral Africa, the text contains new material on African American migration, notable African American women, popular culture, and the 2008 election. The text also has a fresh new 4-color design with new charts, maps, photographs, paintings, and illustrations. Written by legendary, award-winning authors, From Slavery to Freedom remains the most revered, respected, honored text on the market........ 1994 and 2000 editions also available.

Genovese, Eugene D. The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy & Society of the Slave South. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1989. 2nd edition, 335pp. Main Library E442 .G45 1989 : A stimulating analysis of the society and economy in the slave south. 1965 and 1967 editions also available.

Gordon-Reed, Annette.  Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy.  University of Virginia Press, 1998.  288pp. E332.2 .G67 1997 : When Annette Gordon-Reed's groundbreaking study was first published, rumors of Thomas Jefferson's sexual involvement with his slave Sally Hemings had circulated for two centuries. Among all aspects of Jefferson's renowned life, it was perhaps the most hotly contested topic. The publication of Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings intensified this debate by identifying glaring inconsistencies in many noted scholars' evaluations of the existing evidence. In this study, Gordon-Reed assembles a fascinating and convincing argument: not that the alleged thirty-eight-year liaison necessarily took place but rather that the evidence for its taking place has been denied a fair hearing....Friends of Jefferson sought to debunk the Hemings story as early as 1800, and most subsequent historians and biographers followed suit, finding the affair unthinkable based upon their view of Jefferson's life, character, and beliefs. Gordon-Reed responds to these critics by pointing out numerous errors and prejudices in their writings, ranging from inaccurate citations, to impossible time lines, to virtual exclusions of evidence—especially evidence concerning the Hemings family. She demonstrates how these scholars may have been misguided by their own biases and may even have tailored evidence to serve and preserve their opinions of Jefferson. This updated edition of the book also includes an afterword in which the author comments on the DNA study that provided further evidence of a Jefferson and Hemings liaison.

Williams, Eric. Capitalism and Slavery. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1994. 285pp. Main Library HC254.5 .W5 1994 : Slavery helped finance the Industrial Revolution in England. Plantation owners, shipbuilders, and merchants connected with the slave trade accumulated vast fortunes that established banks and heavy industry in Europe and expanded the reach of capitalism worldwide....Eric Williams advanced these powerful ideas in Capitalism and Slavery, published in 1944. Years ahead of its time, his profound critique became the foundation for studies of imperialism and economic development. Binding an economic view of history with strong moral argument, Williams's study of the role of slavery in financing the Industrial Revolution refuted traditional ideas of economic and moral progress and firmly established the centrality of the African slave trade in European economic development. He also showed that mature industrial capitalism in turn helped destroy the slave system. Establishing the exploitation of commercial capitalism and its link to racial attitudes, Williams employed a historicist vision that set the tone for future studies. In a new introduction, Colin Palmer assesses the lasting impact of Williams's groundbreaking work and analyzes the heated scholarly debates it generated when it first appeared. 1944 edition also available.

Culture, Literature, and Art

Readings underscore the cultural expression of African descendent peoples (religion, sports, musical arts-from blues, jazz to hip hop) film/documentary, African American and African literature, fine art).

Alim, H. Samy and John Baugh, eds. Talkin Black Talk: Language, Education, and Social Change. New York: Teachers College Press, 2007. 189pp. Main Library PE3102.N42 T35 2007 : This book captures an important moment in the history of language and literacy education and the continuing struggle for equal language rights. Published 50 years after the Brown decision, this volume revisits the difficult and enduring problem of public schools' failure to educate Black children, and revises our approaches to language and literacy learning in today's culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. Bringing together some of the leading scholars in the study of Black language, culture, and education, this book presents creative, classroom-based, hands-on pedagogical approaches (from Hip Hop Culture to the art of teaching narrative reading comprehension) within the context of the broader, global concerns that impact schooling (from linguistic emancipation to the case of Mother Tongue Education in South Africa).

Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time. New York: Vintage, 1993.   106p. Main Library E185.61 .B195 1993 : A national bestseller when it first appeared in 1963, The Fire Next Time galvanized the nation and gave passionate voice to the emerging civil rights movement. At once a powerful evocation of James Baldwin's early life in Harlem and a disturbing examination of the consequences of racial injustice, the book is an intensely personal and provocative document. It consists of two "letters," written on the occasion of the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation, that exhort Americans, both black and white, to attack the terrible legacy of racism. Described by The New York Times Book Review as "sermon, ultimatum, confession, deposition, testament, and chronicle...all presented in searing, brilliant prose," The Fire Next Time stands as a classic of our literature.  1963 edition also available.

Cade Bambara, Toni. Those Bones Are Not My Child. New York: Pantheon Books, 1999.  676pp.  Main Library PS3552.A473 T47 1999 : Those Bones Are Not My Child is a staggering achievement, a major work of American fiction: the novel that Toni Cade Bambara was working on at the time of her death in 1995 -- a story that puts us at the center of the nightmare of the Atlanta child murders....It was called "The City Too Busy To Hate," but two decades ago more than forty black children were murdered there with grim determination, their bodies found -- in ditches, on riverbanks -- strangled, beaten, and sexually assaulted. Bambara was living in Atlanta at the time, and Those Bones Are Not My Child is the result of twelve years of first-hand research, as she delved into the murders and the world in which they occurred. Evoking the culture of the late 1970s and early '80s with a keen eye -- the Iranian hostage crisis, disco, Travis Bickle of Taxi Driver -- Those Bones Are Not My Child powerfully dramatizes the story of one black family surviving on the margins of a seemingly prosperous city....On Sunday morning, July 20, 1980, Marzala Rawls Spencer awakens to find that her teenage son has gone missing, even as the Atlanta child abductions are beginning to be reported. As she and her estranged husband frantically search for their son, the story moves with authority through the full spectrum of Atlanta's political, social, and cultural life, illuminating the vexing issues of race and class that bedevil the city....Suspenseful, richly dramatic, profoundly affecting, Those Bones Are Not My Child explores the complex relationships within one family in dire crisis. And as Toni Morrison, who edited Bambara's manuscript, has observed, it is also "the narrative revelation of a major Southern city of the '80s, a revelation of what clogs the bloodstream of 'The City Too Busy to Hate.' "

Brooks, Daphne. "‘All That You Can’t Leave Behind: Black Female Soul Singing and the Politics of Surrogating in the Age of Catastrophe." Meridians 8 (2008): 180-204. : This essay explores the critical work of Beyoncé's second solo recording, and places it in conversation with yet another under-theorized yet equally dissonant R&B performance by her "hip-hop soul queen" contemporary Mary J. Blige. In relation to both Beyoncé's and Blige's work, I examine the politics of black women's pop music culture in relation to the Gulf Coast catastrophe and the extreme marginalization of black women in American sociopolitical culture. I suggest that we look closely at the musical performances of Beyoncé as well as Blige, as each artist's work creates a particular kind of black feminist surrogation, that is, an embodied performance that recycles palpable forms of black female sociopolitical grief and loss as well as spirited dissent and dissonance. Their combined efforts mark a new era of protest singing that sonically resists, revises, and reinvents the politics of black female hypervisibility in the American cultural imaginary.

Brown Douglas, Kelly. "The Black Church and the Politics of Sexuality." In Loving the Body: Black Religious Studies and the Erotic / edited by Anthony B. Pinn and Dwight N. Hopkins, . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.   pp.347-362  (Also available online )

Gates, Henry L. Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. 290pp. Main Library PS153.N5 G28 1989 : Henry Louis Gates, Jr.'s original, groundbreaking study explores the relationship between the African and African-American vernacular traditions and black literature, elaborating a new critical approach located within this tradition that allows the black voice to speak for itself....Examining the ancient poetry and myths found in African, Latin American, and Caribbean culture, and particularly the Yoruba trickster figure of Esu-Elegbara and the Signifying Monkey whose myths help articulate the black tradition's theory of its literature, Gates uncovers a unique system for interpretation and a powerful vernacular tradition that black slaves brought with them to the New World. His critical approach relies heavily on the Signifying Monkey--perhaps the most popular figure in African-American folklore--and signification and Signifyin(g)....Exploring signification in black American life and literature by analyzing the transmission and revision of various signifying figures, Gates provides an extended analysis of what he calls the "Talking Book," a central trope in early slave narratives that virtually defines the tradition of black American letters. Gates uses this critical framework to examine several major works of African-American literature--including Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man, and Ishmael Reed's Mumbo Jumbo--revealing how these works signify on the black tradition and on each other....The second volume in an enterprising trilogy on African-American literature, The Signifying Monkey--which expands the arguments of Figures in Black--makes an important contribution to literary theory, African-American literature, folklore, and literary history.

Gray, Herman. "Cultural Politics as Outrage(ous)." Black Renaissance 3:1(2000): 92-101.

Hall, Stuart. "New Ethnicities." In Black British Cultural Studies: A Reader, edited by Houston A. Baker, Jr., Manthia Diawara, and Ruth H. Lindeborg, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.  pp163-172.  Main Library DA125.A1 B56 1996 

Hall, Stuart, "What is This ‘Black’ in Black Popular Culture?" In Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, edited by David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen.  London: Routledge, 1996.  pp.468-478.  (Use Google Chrome for best resuls).

Holland, Sharon P. "Death in Black and White: A Reading of Marc Forster’s Monster’s Ball".  Signs 31, (Spring 2006): 785-813.

Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. 231pp. Main Library PS3515.U789 T5 2000 : Their Eyes Were Watching God, an American classic, is a luminous and haunting novel about Janie Crawford, a Southern black woman in the 1930s whose journey from a free-spirited girl to a woman of independence and substance has inspired writers and readers for close to seventy years....This poetic, graceful love story, rooted in black folk traditions and steeped in mythic realism, celebrates, boldly and brilliantly, African-American culture and heritage. And in a powerful, mesmerizing narrative, it pays quiet tribute to a black woman, who, though constricted by the times, still demanded to be heard....Originally published in 1937, Their Eyes Were Watching God met significant commercial but divided critical acclaim. Somewhat forgotten after her death, Zora Neale Hurston was rediscovered by a number of black authors in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and reintroduced to a greater readership by Alice Walker in her 1972 essay "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston," written for Ms. magazine. Long out of print, the book was reissued after a petition was circulated at the Modern Language Association Convention in 1975, and nearly three decades later Their Eyes Were Watching God is considered a seminal novel of American fiction. 1937, 1990, and 1995 online editions are also available.

Kirkland, David. A. Search Past Silence: The Literacy of Young Black Men. Foreword by Pedro Noguera. New York: Teachers College Press, 2013.  187pp.  Main Library LC2731 .K57 2013 : This beautifully written book argues that educators need to understand the social worlds and complex literacy practices of African-American males in order to pay the increasing educational debt we owe all youth and break the school-to-prison pipeline. Moving portraits from the lives of six friends bring to life the structural characteristics and qualities of meaning-making practices, particularly practices that reveal the political tensions of defining who gets to be literate and who does not....Key chapters on language, literacy, race, and masculinity examine how the literacies, languages, and identities of these friends are shaped by the silences of societal denial. Ultimately, A Search Past Silence is a passionate call for educators to listen to the silenced voices of Black youth and to re-imagine the concept of being literate in a multicultural democratic society.

Lee, Carol D. Signifying as a Scaffold for Literary Interpretation: The Pedagogical Implications of an African American Discourse Genre. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1993. ED357371 Online : Finding ways to build on the language abilities students of diverse cultures bring to school, this book recounts an experiment in helping urban African American high school students to interpret literature by drawing on their own rich oral tradition of "signifying." The book defines signifying as a contest in which the most imaginative user of indirection, irony, and insult wins. The book describes a literature unit taught with inquiry and discussion methods under typical urban conditions in two high schools. The book reports that the academically marginal students posted statistically significant gains in using new awareness of metaphoric language to interpret complex relationships in literature. Chapters of the book are: The Problem; Rationale; Signifying in African American Fiction; Prior Research on Culture and Comprehension; Research Design and Implementation; Measurement Instruments; Observations of the Instructional Process; Results; Talk in the Classroom: The Transformation of Signifying; and Implications and Final Thoughts. Technical notes, reading tests, and tests of social and linguistic knowledge are attached. Also available on microfiche on 3 West in ERIC microfiche collection.

Makoni, Sinfree, Geneva Smitherman, Arnetha F. Ball, and Arthur K. Spears, eds. Black Linguistics: Language, Society, and Politics in African and the Americas. London and New York: Routledge, 2003. 228pp. Main Library P40.5.B42 B55 2003 : Enslavement, forced migration, war and colonization have led to the global dispersal of Black communities and to the fragmentation of common experiences....The majority of Black language researchers explore the social and linguistic phenomena of individual Black communities, without looking at Black experiences outside a given community. This groundbreaking collection re-orders the elitist and colonial elements of language studies by drawing together the multiple perspectives of Black language researchers. In doing so, the book recognises and formalises the existence of a "Black Linguistic Perspective" highlights the contributions of Black language researchers in the field....Written exclusively by Black scholars on behalf of, and in collaboration with local communities, the book looks at the commonalities and differences among Black speech communities in Africa and the Diaspora. Topics include: (1) the OJ Simpson trial; (2) language issues in Southern Africa and Francophone West Africa; (3) the language of Hip Hop; (4) the language of the Rastafaria in Jamaica.

Mayes, Keith A. Kwanzaa: Black Power and the Making of the African-American Holiday Tradition. New York: Routledge, 2009. Main Library GT4403 .M39 2009 : Mayes (history and African American and African studies, U. of Minnesota-Twin Cities) examines the creation of the holiday in 1966 and its subsequent development as a response to racial oppression that manifested in black cultural and holiday invisibility during the 20th century. He explores how Kwanzaa fits into the larger black holiday tradition, bridging older black observances with those that came after its creation. He also describes the appropriation of the holiday by American corporate and cultural institutions during the 1980s and 1990s. After that, he says, it was no longer the sole property of the Black Power community, but was embraced by, and served the interests of, a broader segment of African Americans, corporate and religious bodies, cultural and media institutions, and the federal government..

McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, ed. Black Families. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, c2007. 4th edition, 364pp. Main Library and Faculty Collection (1 West) E185.86 .B525 2007 : Following the success of its best-selling predecessors, the Fourth Edition of Harriette Pipes McAdoo's Black Families retains several now classic contributions while including updated versions of earlier chapters and many entirely new chapters. The goal through each revision of this core text has been to compile a book that focuses on positive dimensions of African American families. The book remains the most complete assessment of black families available in both depth and breadth of coverage. Cross-disciplinary in nature, the book boasts contributions from such fields as family studies, anthropology, education, psychology, social work, and public policy. 1981, 1988, 1997 editions also available.

Mercer, Kobena. "Black Art and the Burden of Representation." Chap. 8 in Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions in Black Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Mercer, Kobena.  "Black Hair/Style Politics." Chap. 4 in Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions in Black Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Mercer, Kobena.  "Reading Racial Fetishism: The Photographs of Robert Mapplethorpe." Chap. 6 in Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions in Black Cultural Studies.. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Mintz, Sidney W. and Richard Price. The Birth of African-American Culture: An Anthropological Perspective. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992. Available through MelCat. Library owns original edition without new preface : An anthropological approach to the Afro-American past : a Caribbean perspective / Sidney W. Mintz, Richard Price. Philadelphia : Institute for the Study of Human Issues, c1976. (ISHI occasional papers in social change ; no. 2). 64pp. Main Library F2191.B55 M56 : This long essay, written in 1972 by two anthropologists in an attempt to prevent ideology from diverting the course of African American studies, posits that the Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the New World cannot "be said to have shared a culture," having been "drawn from different parts of the . . . continent, from numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, and from different societies in any region." On the contrary, the authors conclude that the roots of African American culture lie in the cooperative efforts of the enslaved to create a new society here. Drawing heavily on examples from the Caribbean experience, Mintz and Price believe that so-called African retentions in the cultural realm must be examined in light of social structures and relationships established in the Americas. They examine, for instance, the development of unilineal vs. aggregate family groups in different contexts and the apparent reversion to African gender roles in the economic autonomy of women in Jamaica. This provocative book is bound, even now, to raise the ire of supporters of narrow Afrocentrism, while the general reader may find its arguments too technical.

Morrison, R. D., II. "Black Philosophy: An Instrument for Cultural and Religious Liberation". Journal of Religious Thought, 33 (1), Spring-Summer 1976, pp.11-24..

Nieto, Sonia. The Light in Their Eyes: Creating Multiracial Learning Communities. New York: Teachers College Press, 2010. 10th anniversary edition, 256pp. Main Library LC1099.3 .N553 2010 : Nieto, professor emerita at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, applies Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy to multicultural education in this exploration of how the school experience can be improved for marginalized students, bicultural students, and students of color. Each chapter interweaves written responses by the author's education students and student teachers. This 10th anniversary edition contains a new prologue, in which Nieto addresses the current sociopolitical context of society and education, touching on the influence of poverty on learning, and the impact of No Child Left Behind. A new epilogue focuses on the implications addressed in the book for education today, and reviews recent work on culturally responsive pedagogy. The epilogue concludes with an update, in their own words, on the former education students whose journal entries are included in the first edition. 1999 edition also available.

Moten, Fred. "The Case of Blackness." Criticism 50 (2)  (2008): 177-218.

Sharpe, Christina. "Kara Walker’s Monstrous Intimacies." Chap. 4 in Monstrous Intimacies: Making Post-Slavery Subjects. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.

Rose, Tricia. The Hip Hop Wars: What We Talk about When We Talk about Hip Hop— and Why It Matters. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2008. 308pp. Main Library HN59.2 .R68 2008 : Hip-hop is in crisis. For the past dozen years, the most commercially successful hip-hop has become increasingly saturated with caricatures of black gangstas, thugs, pimps, and ’hos. The controversy surrounding hip-hop is worth attending to and examining with a critical eye because, as scholar and cultural critic Tricia Rose argues, hip-hop has become a primary means by which we talk about race in the United States....In The Hip-Hop Wars, Rose explores the most crucial issues underlying the polarized claims on each side of the debate: Does hip-hop cause violence, or merely reflect a violent ghetto culture? Is hip-hop sexist, or are its detractors simply anti-sex? Does the portrayal of black culture in hip-hop undermine black advancement?...A potent exploration of a divisive and important subject, The Hip-Hop Wars concludes with a call for the regalvanization of the progressive and creative heart of hip-hop. What Rose calls for is not a sanitized vision of the form, but one that more accurately reflects a much richer space of culture, politics, anger, and yes, sex, than the current ubiquitous images in sound and video currently provide.

Smitherman, Geneva. Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. Revised edition, 305pp. Main Library PE3102.N4 S65 2000 : Fully revised and updated -- the ultimate guide to black talk from all segments of the African American community.Do you want to be down with the latest hype terms from the Hip Hop world? Black Talk is the perfect source. "Even if you think you're hip, you'd better look up kitchen, got her nose open, jump salty, and hundreds of other sayings, former or current, that testify to the linguistic originality of Black speakers," said Frederic G. Cassidy, chief editor of the Dictionary of American Regional English. This new edition of Black Talk includes more than 300 new words and phrases and, now more than ever, reflects the ever-changing meanings and uses of this vital and rich part of our language. In a style that is always informative and always entertaining, Geneva Smitherman takes this dictionary far beyond a list of words. Black Talk is a cultural map that charts word meanings along the highways and byways of African American life. 1994 edition also available.

Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1986. 285pp. Main Library PE3102.N42 S5 1986 : In her book, Geneva Smitherman makes a substantial contribution to an understanding of Black English by setting it in the larger context of Black culture and lifestyle. In addition to defining Black English by its distinctive structure and special lexicon, Smitherman argues that the Black dialect is set apart from traditional English by a rhetorical style which reflects its African origins. Smitherman also tackles the issue of Black and White attitudes toward Black English, particularly as they affect educational policy. Documenting her insights with quotes from notable Black historical, literary and popular figures, Smitherman makes clear that Black English is as legitimate a form of speech as British, American, or Australian English. 1977 edition also available..

Smitherman, Geneva. Word from the Mother: Language and African Americans. London: Routledge, 2006. 172pp. Main Library PE3102.N42 S58 2006 : Written by the hugely respected linguist, Geneva Smitherman, this book presents a definitive statement on African American English. Enriched by her evocative and inimitable prose style, the study presents an overview of past debates on the speech of African Americans, as well as providing a vision for the future. Featuring cartoons which demonstrate the relationship between language and race, as well as common perceptions of African American Language, she explores its contribution to mainstream American English and includes a summary of expressions as a suggested linguistic core of AAL....As global manifestations of Black Language increase, she argues that, through education, we must broaden our conception of AAL and its speakers, and further examine the implications of gender, age and class on AAL. Perhaps most of all we must appreciate the ‘artistic and linguistic genius’ of AAL, presented in this book through rap and Hip Hop lyrics and the explorations of rhyme and rhetoric in the Black speech community....Word from the Mother is an essential read for students of African American English, language, culture and sociolinguistics, as well as the general reader interested in the worldwide ‘crossover’ of black popular culture.

Spillers, Hortense. "Interstices: A Small Drama of Words." Chap. 6 in Black, White and in Color: Essays on American Literature and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Spillers, Hortense, Saidiya Hartman, Farah Jasmine Griffin, Shelly Eversley, and Jennifer L. Morgan. "‘Whatcha Gonna Do?’: Revisiting ‘Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book’: A Conversation. Women’s Studies Quarterly 35 (1/2), Spring-Summer 2007, 299-309.

Spillers, Hortense J.  "Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book." Diacritics 17 (2)  Summer 198,  64-81.

Taylor, Yuval and Austen, Jake. Darkest America: Black Minstrelsy from Slavery to Hip-Hop. New York: W. W. Norton, 2012.  364pp.  Browsing Collection (1 East) PN1969.M5 T39 2012 : Yuval Taylor and Jake Austeninvestigate the complex history of black minstrelsy, adopted in themid-nineteenth century by African American performers who played the grinningblackface fool to entertain black and white audiences. We now considerminstrelsy an embarrassing relic, but once blacks and whites alike saw it as ablack art form—and embraced it as such. And, as the authors reveal, blackminstrelsy remains deeply relevant to popular black entertainment, particularlyin the work of contemporary artists like Dave Chappelle, Flavor Flav, SpikeLee, and Lil Wayne. Darkest America explores the origins, heyday, and present-day manifestations of thistradition, exploding the myth that it was a form of entertainment that whitesfoisted on blacks, and shining a sure-to-be controversial light on how theseincendiary performances can be not only demeaning but also, paradoxically,liberating.

Thompson, Julius E.    Dudley Randall, Broadside Press, and The Black Arts Movement In Detroit, 1960-1995.  North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1999.  344pp.  Main Library PS3568.A49 Z5 T47, 1999 : An exploration of editor and poet Randall's work in founding and sustaining Broadside Press and the contribution of the company in promoting black poets and culture during the Civil Rights Movement and beyond. Accompanied by numerous tables showing social background and biographical information of Broad side poets (as well as other information), the text chronologically traces the fortunes of the company from Randall's youth in Detroit to the decline and revival of its past two decades.

Watkins, Mel. On the Real Side: Laughing, Lying, and Signifying - The Underground Tradition of African-American Humor that Transformed American culture, from Slavery to Richard Pryor. New York: Simon & Shuster, 1994.  652pp. Main Library PN6231.N5 W38 1994 : A comprehensive history of African-American humor--from the antebellum South to the Apollo Theater--reassesses such figures as Stepin Fetchit and Amos and Andy and offers a new appreciation of familiar and less well-known performers.

White, Miles. From Jim Crow to Jay-Z: Race, Rap, and the Performance of Masculinity. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011.  163pp.  Fine Arts, Music Book Collection (4 West) ML3918.R37 W53 2011 : This multilayered study of the representation of black masculinity in musical and cultural performance takes aim at the reduction of African American male culture to stereotypes of deviance, misogyny, and excess. Broadening the significance of hip-hop culture by linking it to other expressive forms within popular culture, Miles White examines how these representations have both encouraged the demonization of young black males in the United States and abroad and contributed to the construction of their identities.

Woodward, Komozi. A Nation Within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) and Black Power Politics. North Carolina Press, 1999.  329pp  Main Library E185.97.B23 W66 1999 (Currently on reserve) : Poet and playwright Amiri Baraka is best known as one of the African American writers who helped ignite the Black Arts Movement. This book examines Baraka's cultural approach to Black Power politics and explores his role in the phenomenal spread of black nationalism in the urban centers of late-twentieth-century America, including his part in the election of black public officials, his leadership in the Modern Black Convention Movement, and his work in housing and community development....Komozi Woodard traces Baraka's transformation from poet to political activist, as the rise of the Black Arts Movement pulled him from political obscurity in the Beat circles of Greenwich Village, swept him into the center of the Black Power Movement, and ultimately propelled him into the ranks of black national political leadership. Moving outward from Baraka's personal story, Woodard illuminates the dynamics and remarkable rise of black cultural nationalism with an eye toward the movement's broader context, including the impact of black migrations on urban ethos, the importance of increasing population concentrations of African Americans in the cities, and the effect of the 1965 Voting Rights Act on the nature of black political mobilization.

Politics : National and Global

Readings underscore the main issues that constitute Black people's contemporary public policy - affirmative action, discriminatory constitutionalism and political representation, and political participation, underdevelopment, poverty and inequality (domestic and global).

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press, 2010. 290pp. Main Library   HV9950 .A437 2010 : As the United States celebrates the nation's "triumph over race" with the election of Barack Obama, the majority of young black men in major American cities are locked behind bars or have been labeled felons for life. Although Jim Crow laws have been wiped off the books, an astounding percentage of the African American community remains trapped in a subordinate status - much like their grandparents before them....In this incisive critique, former litigator-turned-legal-scholar Michelle Alexander provocatively argues that we have not ended racial caste in America: we have simply redesigned it. Alexander shows that, by targeting black men and decimating communities of color, the U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control, even as it formally adheres to the principle of color blindness. The New Jim Crow challenges the civil rights community - and all of us - to place mass incarceration at the forefront of a new movement for racial justice in America. Also available in the MSU Schaeffer College of Law Library.

Bracey, Chrisopher Alan.  Saviors or Sellouts : The Promise and Peril of Black Conservatism, from Booker T. Washington to Condeleeza Rice.  Boston : Beacon Press, 2008.  223pp.  Main Library E185 .B798 2008  (Also available online) : What is a black conservative, and why would anyone choose to be one?  wonders Professor Christopher Bracey, an African American liberal Democrat. In 1972, fewer than 10 percent of African Americans identified as conservative; today nearly 30 percent do. Bracey traces black conservatism's long tradition in this original book, bringing us to the present by examining black neoconservatives like Shelby Steele and John McWhorter and political conservatives Clarence Thomas and Condoleezza Rice. With a revealing analysis of the infotainment effect of Bill Cosby, Chris Rock, and others, Bracey analyzes the tradeoffs made by conservatives-many of which raise serious questions about whether today's conservatives are effectively protecting blacks' interests.

Brophy, Alfred L. Reparations: Pros and Cons. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 287pp.  Gast Business Library KF4757 .B66 2006 : Today, the debate over reparations--whether African-Americans should be compensated for decades of racial subjugation--stands as the most racially divisive issue in American politics. In this short, definitive work, Alfred L. Brophy, an expert on racial violence, regards the debate over reparations from the 1700s to the present, examining the arguments on both sides of the current debate. Taking us inside litigation and legislatures past and present, examining failed and successful lawsuits, and reparations actions by legislatures, newspapers, schools, and businesses, including apologies and truth commissions, this book offers a valuable historical and legal perspective for reparations advocates and critics alike.

Browne-Marshall, Gloria. Race, Law, and American Society: 1607-Present. New York: Routledge, 2007. 377pp.  Gast Business Library KF4755 .B76 2007 : Traces the history of racial discrimination in American law from colonial times to the present, analyzing the key court cases that established America’s racial system and showing their impact on American society. Throughout, she places advocates for freedom and equality at the center, moving from their struggle for physical freedom in the slavery era to more recent battles for equal rights and economic equality. From the colonial period to the present, this book examines education, property ownership, voting rights, criminal justice, and the military as well as internationalism and civil liberties. Race, Law, and American Society is highly accessible and thorough in its depiction of the role race has played, with the sanction of the U.S. Supreme Court, in shaping virtually every major American social institution.

Browne-Marshall, Gloria. The US Constitution: an African American Context. 2nd ed. New York: The Law and Policy Group Press, 2010. 2nd edition, 62pp.  Business Library KF4528 .U72 2010 : This unique, easily portable version of the U.S. Constitution fits in the palm of your hand. It contains that exact same language provided by the drafters of the original Constitution but highlights those portions of the Constitution that refer specifically to African-Americans and have great importance to people of color. This lamintated book includes The Declaration of Independence. It also includes a chronology of major legal cases and events involving African-Americans and the law. A readable book, with commentary by Gloria J. Browne-Marshall, Associate Professor of Constitutional Law at John Jay College in New York City and author of the acclaimed book "Race, Law, and American Society: 1607 to Present" and "The Constitution: Major Cases and Conflicts." The U.S. Constitution: An African-American Context" is the most empowering little book you may ever buy. It is American history.

Bush, William. S. Who Gets a Childhood?  Race and Juvenile Justice in Twentieth-Century Texas.  Athens, Ga. : University of Georgia Press, c2010.  257pp.  Main Library HV9105.T4 B87 2010  (Also available online) : Using Texas as a case study for understanding change in the American juvenile justice system over the past century, William S. Bush tells the story of three cycles of scandal, reform, and retrenchment, each of which played out in ways that tended to extend the privileges of a protected childhood to white middle- and upper-class youth, while denying those protections to blacks, Latinos, and poor whites....On the forefront of both progressive and “get tough” reform campaigns, Texas has led national policy shifts in the treatment of delinquent youth to a surprising degree. Changes in the legal system have included the development of courts devoted exclusively to young offenders, the expanded legal application of psychological expertise, and the rise of the children’s rights movement. At the same time, broader cultural ideas about adolescence have also changed. Yet Bush demonstrates that as the notion of the teenager gained currency after World War II, white, middle-class teen criminals were increasingly depicted as suffering from curable emotional disorders even as the rate of incarceration rose sharply for black, Latino, and poor teens. Bush argues that despite the struggles of reformers, child advocates, parents, and youths themselves to make juvenile justice live up to its ideal of offering young people a second chance, the story of twentieth-century juvenile justice in large part boils down to “the exclusion of poor and nonwhite youth from modern categories of childhood and adolescence."

Butler, John Sibley.  Entrepreneurship and self-help among Black Americans : a reconsideration of race and economics.  Albany : State University of New York Press, c2005.  402pp.  Main Library  E185.8 .B83 2005 : This long-awaited revision of a classic work traces the unique development of business enterprises and other community organizations among black Americans from before the Civil War to the present.  Also available online.   1991 print and online edition also available.

Butler, Paul. Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. New York: New Press, 2009. 214pp.  Gast Business Library KF9223 .B88 2009 : Drawing on his personal fascinating story as a prosecutor, a defendant, and an observer of the legal process, Paul Butler offers a sharp and engaging critique of our criminal justice system. He argues against discriminatory drug laws and excessive police power and shows how our policy of mass incarceration erodes communities and perpetuates crime. Controversially, he supports jury nullification—or voting “not guilty” out of principle—as a way for everyday people to take a stand against unfair laws, and he joins with the “Stop Snitching” movement, arguing that the reliance on informants leads to shoddy police work and distrust within communities. Butler offers instead a “hip hop theory of justice,” parsing the messages about crime and punishment found in urban music and culture. Butler’s argument is powerful, edgy, and incisive.  Also available in the MSU College of Law Schaeffer Library.

Cobb, Jelani.  The Substance of Hope : Barack Obama and the Paradox of Progress.  New York : Walker, 2010. 191pp.  Main Library E185.86 .C573 2010 : For acclaimed historian William Jelani Cobb, the historic election of Barack Obama to the presidency is not the most remarkable development of the 2008 election; even more so is the fact that Obama won some 90 percent of the black vote in the primaries across America despite the fact that the established black leadership since the civil rights era—men like Jesse Jackson, John Lewis, Andrew Young, who paved the way for his candidacy—all openly supported Hillary Clinton. Clearly a sea change has occurred among black voters, ironically pushing the architects of the civil rights movement toward the periphery at the moment when their political dreams were most fully realized....How this has happened, and the powerful implications it holds for America's politics and social landscape, is the focus of The Substance of Hope, a deeply insightful, paradigm-shifting examination of a new generation of voters that has not been shaped by the raw memory of Jim Crow and has a different range of imperatives. Cobb sees Obama's ascendancy as "a reality that has been taking shape in tiny increments for the past four decades," and examines thorny issues such as the paradox and contradictions embodied in race and patriotism, identity and citizenship; how the civil rights leadership became a political machine; why the term "postracial" is as iniquitous as it is inaccurate; and whether our society has really changed with Obama's election....Elegantly written and powerfully argued, The Substance of Hope challenges conventional wisdom as it offers original insight into America's future.

Cruse, Harold.  The Crisis of the Negro IntellectualNew York : Quill, 1984, c1967.  594pp.  Main Library E185.6 .C96 1984 : Examines the dilemma of the Black intellectual who through his creative efforts and social prominence must perform as a spokesman for the Black masses.  1967 and 1968 editions also available.

Cruse, Harold. The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual : A Historical Analysis of the Failure of Black Leadership. New York: New York Review of Books, 2005.  594pp.  Main Library E185.6 .C96 2005 :  First published in 1967, as the early triumphs of the Civil Rights movement yielded to increasing frustration and violence, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual electrified a generation of activists and intellectuals. The product of a lifetime of struggle and reflection, Cruse's book is a singular amalgam of cultural history, passionate disputation, and deeply considered analysis of the relationship between American blacks and American society. Reviewing black intellectual life from the Harlem Renaissance through the 1960s, Cruse discusses the legacy (and offers memorably acid-edged portraits) of figures such as Paul Robeson, Lorraine Hansberry, and James Baldwin, arguing that their work was marked by a failure to understand the specifically American character of racism in the United States. This supplies the background to Cruse's controversial critique of both integrationism and black nationalism and to his claim that black Americans will only assume a just place within American life when they develop their own distinctive centers of cultural and economic influence. For Cruse's most important accomplishment may well be his rejection of the clich?s of the melting pot in favor of a vision of Americanness as an arena of necessary and vital contention, an open and ongoing struggle.

Frazier, E. Franklin. Black Bourgeoisie: The Book that Brought the Shock of Self- Revelation to Middle-Class Blacks in America. Glencoe, Ill. : Free Press Paperbacks, 1957. 264pp.  Main Library E185.61 .F833 : A classic analysis of the Black middle class studies its origin and development, accentuating its behavior, attitudes, and values during the 1940s and 1950s.  1965 and 1997 editions available.

Georgakas, Dan, and Marvin Surkin ; [foreward by Manning Marable].  Detroit, I do mind dying : a study in urban revolutionChicago, Ill. : Haymarket Books, 2012.  254pp.  Main Library F574.D4 G46 2012 : Chronicles the development of two Detroit-based revolutionary groups during the 1960s and 1970s, and their efforts to gain political power in order to tackle issues affecting the city's African American working class.  1975 and 1998 editions also available.

Gold, Steven J.  The store in the hood : a century of ethnic business and conflictLanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, c2010.  317pp.  Main Library HD2358.5.U6 G65 2010 : A comprehensive study of conflicts between immigrant merchants and customers throughout the U.S. during the 20th century. The book draws on published research, official statistics, interviews, and ethnographic data collected from diverse locations to discuss the many causes of these disputes—determined by society’s larger structure. The book also suggests possible solutions.

Guinier, Lani. Tyranny of the Majority: Fundamental Fariness in Representative Democracy. New York: Free Press, 1994. 324pp.  Main Library JF1075.U6 G85 1994 : Like most Americans, President Clinton hadn't read Guinier's controversial academic writings when he nominated her to the position of assistant attorney general for civil rights. Now, with the publication of this collection of essays, a larger reading audience will have an opportunity to learn more about her views on voting rights. Guinier discusses the dilemma facing a democracy when a minority's own interests are consistently blocked by an electoral majority. While espousing a notion that is as simple as Robert Fulghum's admonition that we take turns, she also proposes complex remedial alternatives ranging from interest-based electoral districts to cumulative voting. As with many collections of previously published writings, the individual chapters don't all fit together. This is a difficult and controversial book, full of murky ideas and writing, but it should be as widely read as possible because the success of our democracy requires the discussion of ideas.  Also availalble in the MSU College of Law Schaeffer Library.

Johnson, Cedric, editor.  The neoliberal deluge : Hurricane Katrina, late capitalism, and the remaking of New Orleans.  Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c2011.  406pp.  Main Library HV551.4.N48 N46 2011 : Katrina was not just a hurricane. The death, destruction, and misery wreaked on New Orleans cannot be blamed on nature’s fury alone. This volume of essays locates the root causes of the 2005 disaster squarely in neoliberal restructuring and examines how pro-market reforms are reshaping life, politics, economy, and the built environment in New Orleans....The authors—a diverse group writing from the disciplines of sociology, political science, education, public policy, and media theory—argue that human agency and public policy choices were more at fault for the devastation and mass suffering experienced along the Gulf Coast than were sheer forces of nature. The harrowing images of flattened homes, citizens stranded on rooftops, patients dying in makeshift hospitals, and dead bodies floating in floodwaters exposed the moral and political contradictions of neoliberalism—the ideological rejection of the planner state and the active promotion of a new order of market rule....Many of these essays offer critical insights on the saga of postdisaster reconstruction. Challenging triumphal narratives of civic resiliency and universal recovery, the authors bring to the fore pitched battles over labor rights, gender and racial justice, gentrification, the development of city master plans, the demolition of public housing, policing, the privatization of public schools, and roiling tensions between tourism-based economic growth and neighborhood interests. The contributors also expand and deepen more conventional critiques of “disaster capitalism” to consider how the corporate mobilization of philanthropy and public good will are remaking New Orleans in profound and pernicious ways.  Also available online.

Johnson, Sterling. Black Globalism: The International Politics of a Non-State Nation. Brookfield: Ashgate, 1998. 262pp.  Main Library E185.61 .J7 1998 : For over 400 years Africans in the United States have fought to realize the principles embedded in the Declaration of Independence and framed the in the US constitution. This book considers the position of African-Americans within American society as a whole, within the context of black non-state-nation status, and in connection to foreign policy relating to other black nations. The book looks at cases such as Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, the use of the African-American community's political power to influence foreign policy regarding South Africa, and the practice of turning back Haitian refugees. The spiritual roots of Pan-Africanism are examined, and the role of the oral tradition, Ethiopian christianity and African culture in the early slave revolts are focused on. Also examined are the emigration debate, nationalism and Pan-Africanism strategies of Martin Delaney, repatriation efforts, the back-to-Africa movement, the impact of Malcolm X, the activities of various African-American organizations, and the role and influence of black legislators on US foreign policy.

Marable, Manning. How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America: Problems in Race, Political Economy, and Society. Cambridge: South End Press, 2000. 353pp.  Main Library E185.8 .M2 2000 : Sets the standard of achievement for the current generation of Afro-American scholar-activists.

Marable, Manning and Kristin Clarke, eds. Barack Obama and African American Empowerment: The Rise of Black America’s New Leadership. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. 269pp.  Main Library E185.615 .B2855 2009 : Barack Obama and the African-American Empowerment examines the evolution of black leadership and politics since the Civil Rights Movement. It looks at the phenomenon of Barack Obama, from his striking emergence as a successful candidate for the Illinois State Senate to President of the United States, as part of the continuum of African American political leaders. The reader also examines the evolving ideals about the roles of government and the economy in addressing the historic disadvantages experienced by many African Americans. Here, some of the nation's most influential intellectuals bring together original scholarship to look at the future of national politics and American race relations.

Marx, Anthony W.    Making race and nation : a comparison of South Africa, the United States, and BrazilCambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1998.  390pp.  Main Library HT1521 .M283 1998 : In this bold, original and persuasive book, Anthony W. Marx provocatively links the construction of nations to the construction of racial identity. Using a comparative historical approach, Marx analyzes the connection between race as a cultural and political category rooted in the history of slavery and colonialism, and the development of three nation states. He shows how each country's differing efforts to establish national unity and other institutional impediments have served, through the nation-building process and into their present systems of state power, to shape and often crystallize categories and divisions of race. Focusing on South Africa, Brazil and the United States, Marx illustrates and elucidates the historical dynamics and institutional relationships by which the construction of race and the development of these nations have informed one another. Deftly combining comparative history, political science and sociological interpretation, sharpened by over three-hundred interviews with key informants from each country, he follows this dialogue into the present to discuss recent political mobilization, popular protest and the current salience of race issues.

Muehlenbeck, Philip E., editor.   Race, ethnicity, and the Cold War : a global perspective.  Nashville : Vanderbilt University Press, c2012. 324pp.  D842 .R28 2012 : A white American woman is raped by a black Panamanian laborer in 1946 in the Panama Canal Zone, and the aftermath affects labor relations in the Western hemisphere for the next two decades. And numerous nations use the African continent to exercise their colonial muscle and postwar power, only to encounter the financial and military burdens that will exhaust and alienate their own citizenry half a world away. As Race, Ethnicity, and the Cold War reveals, during this dangerous era there were no longer any "isolated incidents." Like the butterfly flapping its wings and changing the weather on the other side of the globe, an instance of racial or ethnic hostility had ripple effects across a Cold War world of brinksmanship between bitter national rivals and ideological opponents.

Muhammad, Khalil G. The Condemnation of Blackness : Race,Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010. 380pp.  Main Library HV6197.U5 M85 2010 : Lynch mobs, chain gangs, and popular views of black southern criminals that defined the Jim Crow South are well known. We know less about the role of the urban North in shaping views of race and crime in American society....Following the 1890 census, the first to measure the generation of African Americans born after slavery, crime statistics, new migration and immigration trends, and symbolic references to America as the promised land of opportunity were woven into a cautionary tale about the exceptional threat black people posed to modern urban society. Excessive arrest rates and overrepresentation in northern prisons were seen by many whites—liberals and conservatives, northerners and southerners—as indisputable proof of blacks’ inferiority. In the heyday of “separate but equal,” what else but pathology could explain black failure in the “land of opportunity”?...The idea of black criminality was crucial to the making of modern urban America, as were African Americans’ own ideas about race and crime. Chronicling the emergence of deeply embedded notions of black people as a dangerous race of criminals by explicit contrast to working-class whites and European immigrants, this fascinating book reveals the influence such ideas have had on urban development and social policies.

Radford-Hill, Sheila. Further to Fly: Black Women and the Politics of Empowerment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000. 120pp.  Main Library E185.86 .R26 2000 : How feminism has failed African American women and why they must fight back....Amid the longest-running economic boom in American history and despite the emergence of a significant black middle class, the lot of low-income black people in general-and black women in particular-seems more troubling than ever. Their plight, Sheila Radford-Hill argues in this book, is directly related to the diminution of black women's traditional power as culture bearers and community builders. A cogent critique of feminist theory and practice, Further to Fly identifies the failure of feminism to connect with the social realities it should seek to explain, in particular the decline of black women's empowerment....Further to Fly searches out the causes and effects of this decline, describing the ways in which, since the 1960s, black women have been stripped of their traditional status as agents of change in the community-and how, as a result, the black community has faltered. Radford-Hill explores the shortcomings of second-wave black and white feminism, revealing how their theoretical underpinnings have had unintended (and often unacknowledged) negative consequences for black women's lives and their communities....While acknowledging that African American women have made significant contributions to the black struggle for justice in America, Radford-Hill argues that more needs to be done. She combines social criticism and critical analysis to argue that black women must revive their legacy of activism and reclaim the tradition of nurturing in the black community, proposing specific tactics that can be used to revive the support networks that help determine the obligations of community members and guide how people interact on an everyday level....As a deft account of genesis and effects of black women's diminishing power, and as a sobering analysis of the devastating blunders of feminist theory and practice, this work makes a compelling argument for an "authentic feminism," one that aggressively connects the realities of women's experiences, needs, aspirations, and responsibilities.

Robinson, Eugene. Disintegration: The Splintering of Black America. New York: Doubleday, 2010. 254pp.  Main Library E185.86 .R618X 2010 : The African American population in the United States has always been seen as a single entity: a “Black America” with unified interests and needs. In his groundbreaking book Disintegration, longtime Washington Post journalist Eugene Robinson argues that, through decades of desegregation, affir­mative action, and immigration, the concept of Black America has shattered. Now, instead of one, there are four distinct groups: a Mainstream middle-class majority with a solid stake in society; a large Abandoned minority with less hope than ever of escaping poverty; a small Transcendent elite, whose enor­mous wealth and power makes even whites genuflect; and newly Emergent groups of mixed-race individuals and recent black immigrants who question what “black” even means....Using historical research, reporting, census data, and polling, Robinson shows how these groups have become so distinct that they view each other with mistrust and apprehension. And yet all are reluctant to acknowledge division. Disintegration shines light on crucial debates about affirmative action, the impor­tance of race versus social class, and the ultimate questions of whether and in what form racism and the black community endure.

Stokes, Curtis, and Theresa Meléndez, eds. Racial Liberalism and the Politics of Urban America. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2003. 353pp.  Main Library E184.A1 R323 2003 : Sixteen contributions from academics look at the intersection of race and public policy in American cities. A sampling of topics includes electoral politics, residential segregation, disparities in access to health care, and environmental racism. The papers were originally presented at a conference held in April 2001 at Michigan State University.  Also available in Faculty Collection (1 West)

Stokes, Curtis, ed. Race and Human Rights. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2009. 271pp.  Main Library E184.A1 R223 2009 : : The terrorist attacks against U.S. targets on September 11, 2001, and the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, sparked an intense debate about "human rights." According to contributors to this provocative book, the discussion of human rights to date has been far too narrow. They argue that any conversation about human rights in the United States must include equal rights for all residents....Essays examine the historical and intellectual context for the modern debate about human rights, the racial implications of the war on terrorism, the intersection of racial oppression, and the national security state. Others look at the Pinkerton detective agency as a forerunner of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the role of Africa in post–World War II American attempts at empire-building, and the role of immigration as a human rights issue. Also available in Faculty Collection (1 West)

Tate, Gayle. Unknown Tongues: Black Women’s Political Activism in the Antebellum Era, 1820-1860. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2003. 290pp.  Main Library E185.9 .T38 2003  : Unknown Tongues examines the social and economic factors of northern industrialization, social reform, and black nationalism, all of which undergirded black women’s political consciousness during the decades before the American Civil War. The linkages between black women’s roles in the "culture of resistance" in slave communities and their transformations in the urban market economy fueled the development of black women’s political consciousness. As community activists and then as abolitionists, black urban women organized and protested against slavery, racism, sexism, and its attendant ills. Driven by market forces of nascent capitalism, black women created broad- based protest responses to the white power structure. Unknown Tongues explores the material realities that underpinned black women’s political development as well as the transformative stages of their political consciousness and activity.

Taylor. Carl S. Dangerous Society. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1990. 149pp.  Main Library HV6439.U7 D67 1990 :  Although many books/videos are out there about gangs in general, I doubt that there exists any other such book giving details about 1970s and 1980s "Detroit" gangs, including inteviews.

Taylor, Carl S. Girls, Gangs, Women and Drugs. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1993. 217pp.  Main Library HV6439.U7 D68 1993 : This important new work by critically the acclaimed sociologist and author of Dangerous Society makes it clear that girls and young women have become a real force in the drug culture and in 1990s urban gang life. Girls, Gangs, Women and Drugs is based on a decade of field work undertaken in the city of Detroit by one of America's foremost gang experts and his team of researchers. In the course of this investigation, Taylor and his staff interviewed hundreds of girls and young women. Based on what they learned, Dr. Taylor has prepared this spell-binding account of drugs, money, sex, and violence. He commands the reader's attention as complex webs of female gang life and drug culture are unraveled. Girls, Gangs, Women, and Drugs is a book about women, young and old; it is about gangs; it is a book about their survival in a society that has abandoned them; it is a book about women in the criminal justice system; it is about judges, attorneys, administrators of the court, and correctional officers; it is about the women who serve on the police force. It focuses on a large segment of Detroit's female population and how these women see what they are doing as committing acts of self-empowerment - the personal pursuit of their own version of the American Dream. Girls, Gangs, Women, and Drugs takes a close look at the hard economic realities of life on the street and the women who must encounter them every day. Its message is clear: female involvement with drugs and gangs is yet another facet of America's decaying urban culture, one that commands our immediate attention.  Also available online to MSU community.

Van Horne, Winston A., ed. “Introduction, Ch.1, 2 and 3”. Global Convulsions: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth Century. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997. 364pp.  Main Library HT1521 .G54 1997 : Contains 16 contributions addressing an array of problems and issues, organized into three sections: concepts and images of race, ethnicity, and nationalism; national identity and the struggle for national rights; and nationalism and the crisis of the multiethnic/multinational state. Topics include the Bell Curve; the role of religion in the cultural foundations of ethnonationalism; national identity and rights in Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and Central Asia; and the issue of ethnonationalism in Yugoslavia, China, the Baltic, Russia, Nigeria, and Canada.

Von Eschen, Penny Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937- 1957. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1997. 259pp.  Main Library E185.615 .V66 1997 :  During World War II, African American activists, journalists, and intellectuals argued that independence movements in Africa and Asia were inextricably linked to political, economic, and civil rights struggles in the United States. Marshaling evidence from a wide array of international sources, including government documents and the black press of the time, Penny M. Von Eschen vividly portrays the African diaspora in its international heyday, from the 1945 Manchester Pan-African Congress to early cooperation with the United Nations. By exploring the relationship between transformations in anticolonial politics and the history of the United States during its emergence as the dominant global power, Von Eschen challenges bipolar Cold War paradigms. She argues that the collision of anticolonialism with Cold War liberalism illuminates conflicts central to the reshaping of America.

West, Cornel. Race Matters. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.  108pp.  Main Library E185.615 .W43 2001 : First published in 1993 on the one-year anniversary of the L.A. riots, Race Matters was a national best-seller, and it has since become a groundbreaking classic on race in America. Race Matters contains West's most powerful essays on the issues relevant to black Americans today: despair, black conservatism, black-Jewish relations, myths about black sexuality, the crisis in leadership in the black community, and the legacy of Malcolm X. And the insights that he brings to these complicated problems remain fresh, exciting, creative, and compassionate. Now more than ever, Race Matters is a book for all Americans, as it helps us to build a genuine multiracial democracy in the new millennium.  The 1993 edition also available in print, online, and as a sound recording.

Wilson, William Julius.  More than just race : being black and poor in the inner cityNew York : W.W. Norton & Co., c2009.  190pp.  HM821 .W55 2009 : In this provocative contribution to the American discourse on race, the newest book of the Issues of Our Time series edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr., William Julius Wilson applies an exciting new analytic framework to three politically fraught social problems: the persistence of the inner-city ghetto, the plight of low-skilled black males, and the fragmentation of the African American family. Though the discussion of racial inequality is typically ideologically polarized--conservatives emphasize cultural factors like worldviews and behaviors while liberals emphasize institutional forces--Wilson dares to consider both institutional and cultural factors as causes of the persistence of racial inequality. He reaches the controversial conclusion that, while structural and cultural forces are inextricably linked, public policy can change the racial status quo only by reforming the institutions that reinforce it. This book will dramatically affect policy debates and challenge many of the leaders.

Wilson, William Julius. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. 254pp. Main Library  HV4045 .W55 1987 : This eminent sociologist has written a complex and provocative analysis of black inner-city poverty. Eschewing both liberal and conservative orthodoxies, Wilson argues that the substantial increase in urban poverty over the past few decades has not been caused by either contemporary racism or an internalized "culture of poverty" value system. Rather it has been the result of major shifts in the economic system, as jobs have left the urban manufacturing sector for a decentralized service sector. Because race-specific policies like affirmative action have tended to benefit the black middle class, only holistic policies available to all Americans who need them can reverse this cycle of poverty. Massive job training programs and more child care would provide a start. Also available in the MSU College of Law Schaeffer Library.

Wilson, William Julius.  When work disappears : the world of the new urban poorNew York : Knopf, 1996.  322pp.  Main Library HV4045 .W553 1996 : Discusses the current erosion of blue-collar jobs in inner-city Chicago, the suburbanization of employment, their implications for the urban poor, and programs that can help this growing underclass .

Biographies

Readings profile African heritage people's main agents and actors who have shaped the discipline and its subject histories up to the present.

Andrews, William L and William S. McFeely.  Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave, written by himself : authoritative text, contexts, criticismNew York : W.W. Norton & Co., c1997.  188pp.  Main Library E449.D75 D68 1997 : Upon its publication in 1845, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave...became an immediate best-seller.  In addition to its far-reaching impact on the antislavery movement in the United States and abroad, Douglass's fugitive slave narrative won recognition for its literary excellence, which has since earned it a place among the classics of nineteenth-century American autobiography.  This Norton Critical Edition reprints the 1845 first edition of Douglass's compelling work.  Explanatory annotations accompany the text....A rich selection of "Contexts" provides the reader with contemporary perspectives.  Included are the little-known preface that Douglass wrotein 1846 for the second Irish edition; a public exchange of letters between A. C. C. Thompson, a former slaveholder, and Douglass; three autobiographical portraits of Douglass's parents; Douglass's account of his escape from slavery, which he chose not to include in the 1845 Narrative; samples of Douglass's use of his slave experience in two of his most influential antislavery speeches; and reminiscences by James Monroe Gregory and Elizabeth Cady Stanton of Douglass as both oratora nd friend...."Criticism" collects six essential assessments of the Narrative's historical and literary aspects, by William S. McFeely, Peter Ripley, Robert B. Stepto, William L. Andrews, Houston A. Baker, Jr., and Deborah E. McDowell. A Chronology and a Selected Bibliography are included.

Boyd, Herb, Ron Daniels, Majulana Karenga, Haki R. madhubuti, editors.  By Any Means Necessary Malcolm X : Real, Not Invented.  Chicago : Third World Press, 2012.  On order : Critical conversations on Manning Marable's Biography of Malcolm X.

Branch, Taylor. At Canaan’s Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. 1039pp. Main Library E185.615 .B67 2006 : At Canaan's Edge concludes America in the King Years, a three-volume history that will endure as a masterpiece of storytelling on American race, violence, and democracy. Pulitzer Prize-winner and bestselling author Taylor Branch makes clear in this magisterial account of the civil rights movement that Martin Luther King, Jr., earned a place next to James Madison and Abraham Lincoln in the pantheon of American history.In At Canaan's Edge, King and his movement stand at the zenith of America's defining story, one decade into an epic struggle for the promises of democracy. Branch opens with the authorities' violent suppression of a voting-rights march in Alabama on March 7, 1965. The quest to cross Selma's Edmund Pettus Bridge engages the conscience of the world, strains the civil rights coalition, and embroils King in negotiations with all three branches of the U.S. government. The marches from Selma coincide with the first landing of large U.S. combat units in South Vietnam. The escalation of the war severs the cooperation of King and President Lyndon Johnson after a collaboration that culminated in the landmark 1965 Voting Rights Act.After Selma, young pilgrims led by Stokely Carmichael take the movement into adjacent Lowndes County, Alabama, where not a single member of the black majority has tried to vote in the twentieth century. Freedom workers are murdered, but sharecroppers learn to read, dare to vote, and build their own political party. Carmichael leaves in frustration to proclaim his famous black power doctrine, taking the local panther ballot symbol to become an icon of armed rebellion.Also after Selma, King takes nonviolence into Northern urban ghettoes. Integrated marches through Chicago expose hatreds and fears no less virulent than the Mississippi Klan's, but King's 1966 settlement with Mayor Richard Daley does not gain the kind of national response that generated victories from Birmingham and Selma. We watch King overrule his advisers to bring all his eloquence into dissent from the Vietnam War. We watch King make an embattled decision to concentrate his next campaign on a positive compact to address poverty. We reach Memphis, the garbage workers' strike, and King's assassination.Parting the Waters provided an unsurpassed portrait of King's rise to greatness, beginning with the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and ending with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963. In Pillar of Fire, theologians and college students braved the dangerous Mississippi Freedom Summer of 1964 as Malcolm X raised a militant new voice for racial separatism. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed segregation by race and mandated equal opportunity for women. From the pinnacle of winning the Nobel Peace Prize, King willed himself back to "the valley" of jail in his daunting Selma campaign.At Canaan's Edge portrays King at the height of his moral power even as his worldly power is waning. It shows why his fidelity to freedom and nonviolence makes him a defining figure long beyond his brilliant life and violent end.

Clinton, Catherine. Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom. New York: Little, Brown, c2004. 272pp.  Main Library E444.T82 C57 2004 :  A definitive full-scale biography of the legendary fugitive slave turned "conductor" on the Underground Railroad describes Tubman's youth in the antebellum South, her escape to Philadelphia, her successful efforts to liberate slaves, and her work as a scout, spy, and nurse for the Union Army during the Civil War.

Dagbovie, Pero G. The Early Black History Movement, Carter G. Woodson, and Lorenzo Johnston Greene. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.  258pp.  Main Library E185.97.W65 D34 2007 : This book examines the lives, work, and contributions of two of the most important figures of the early black history movement, Carter G. Woodson and Lorenzo Johnston Greene. Drawing on the two men's personal papers as well as the materials of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH), Pero Gaglo Dagbovie probes the struggles, sacrifices, and achievements of these black history pioneers. The book offers the first major examination of Greene's life. Equally important, it also addresses a variety of issues pertaining to Woodson that other scholars have either overlooked or ignored, including his image in popular and scholarly writings and memory, the democratic approach of the ASNLH, and the pivotal role of women in the association.  Also available in the Faculty Book Collection (1 West)

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of The Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written By Himself. San Francisco, CA : City Lights Books, c2010, [2009]  254pp.  Main Library E449 .D749 2009b :  A masterpiece of African American literature, Frederick Douglass's Narrative is the powerful story of an enslaved youth coming into social and moral consciousness by disobeying his white slavemasters and secretly teaching himself to read. Achieving literacy emboldens Douglass to resist, escape, and ultimately achieve his freedom. After escaping slavery, Douglass became a leader in the anti-slavery and women's rights movements, a bestselling author, and U.S. diplomat....In this new critical edition, legendary activist and feminist scholar Angela Davis sheds new light on the legacy of Frederick Douglass. In two philosophical lectures originally delivered at UCLA in autumn 1969, Davis focuses on Douglass's intellectual and spiritual awakening, and the importance of self-knowledge in achieving freedom from all forms of oppression. With detailed attention to Douglass's text, she interrogates the legacy of slavery and shares timeless lessons about oppression, resistance, and freedom. And in an extended introductory essay written for this edition, Davis comments on previous editions of the Narrative and re-examines Douglass through a contemporary feminist perspective. An important new edition of an American classic.

Marable, Manning. Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention. New York: Viking, 2011. 594pp.  Main Library BP223.Z8 L57636 2011 : Of the great figure in twentieth-century American history perhaps none is more complex and controversial than Malcolm X. Constantly rewriting his own story, he became a criminal, a minister, a leader, and an icon, all before being felled by assassins' bullets at age thirty-nine. Through his tireless work and countless speeches he empowered hundreds of thousands of black Americans to create better lives and stronger communities while establishing the template for the self-actualized, independent African American man. In death he became a broad symbol of both resistance and reconciliation for millions around the world....Manning Marable's new biography of Malcolm is a stunning achievement. Filled with new information and shocking revelations that go beyond the Autobiography, Malcolm X unfolds a sweeping story of race and class in America, from the rise of Marcus Garvey and the Ku Klux Klan to the struggles of the civil rights movement in the fifties and sixties. Reaching into Malcolm's troubled youth, it traces a path from his parents' activism through his own engagement with the Nation of Islam, charting his astronomical rise in the world of Black Nationalism and culminating in the never-before-told true story of his assassination. Malcolm X will stand as the definitive work on one of the most singular forces for social change, capturing with revelatory clarity a man who constantly strove, in the great American tradition, to remake himself anew.

Moore, Wes. The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2010.  233pp.  Main Library F189.B153 M66 2010 : Traces the parallel lives of two youths with the same name in the same community, describing how the author grew up to be a Rhodes Scholar and promising business leader while his counterpart suffered a life of violence and imprisonment.

Washington, Booker T. Up From Slavery. New York: Modern Library, 1999. 220pp.  Main Library E185.97 .W3 1999 : For half a century from its publication in 1902 Up from Slavery was the best-known book written by an African American. The life of ex-slave Booker T. Washington embodied the legendary rise of the American self-made man, and his autobiography gave prominence for the first time to the voice of a group which had to pull itself up from extreme adversity.  Many other editions are available : 1951, 1963,  1965, 1970, 1998.  A 1901 online edition is also avaiable.

William, Thomas C. Losing My Cool: How a Father’s Love and 15,000 Books Beat Hip- Hop Culture. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.  225pp. Main Library E185.615 .W497 2010 : A pitch-perfect account of how hip-hop culture drew in the author and how his father drew him out again-with love, perseverance, and fifteen thousand books....Into Williams's childhood home-a one-story ranch house-his father crammed more books than the local library could hold. "Pappy" used some of these volumes to run an academic prep service; the rest he used in his unending pursuit of wisdom. His son's pursuits were quite different-"money, hoes, and clothes." The teenage Williams wore Medusa-faced Versace sunglasses and a hefty gold medallion, dumbed down and thugged up his speech, and did whatever else he could to fit into the intoxicating hip-hop culture that surrounded him. Like all his friends, he knew exactly where he was the day Biggie Smalls died, he could recite the lyrics to any Nas or Tupac song, and he kept his woman in line, with force if necessary....But Pappy, who grew up in the segregated South and hid in closets so he could read Aesop and Plato, had a different destiny in mind for his son. For years, Williams managed to juggle two disparate lifestyles- "keeping it real" in his friends' eyes and studying for the SATs under his father's strict tutelage. As college approached and the stakes of the thug lifestyle escalated, the revolving door between Williams's street life and home life threatened to spin out of control. Ultimately, Williams would have to decide between hip-hop and his future. Would he choose "street dreams" or a radically different dream - the one Martin Luther King spoke of or the one Pappy held out to him now?...Williams is the first of his generation to measure the seductive power of hip-hop against its restrictive worldview, which ultimately leaves those who live it powerless. Losing My Cool portrays the allure and the danger of hip-hop culture like no book has before. Even more remarkably, Williams evokes the subtle salvation that literature offers and recounts with breathtaking clarity a burgeoning bond between father and son.

X, Malcolm. Autobiography of Malcolm X: with the assistance of Alex Haley ; introduction by M.S. Handler ; epilogue by Alex Haley. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992, 1965. 527pp.  E185.97.L5 A3 1992 : If there was any one man who articulated the anger, the struggle, and the beliefs of African Americans in the 1960s, that man was Malcolm X. His Autobiography is the result of a unique collaboration between Alex Haley and Malcolm X, whose voice and philosophy resonate from every page, just as his experience and his intelligence continue to speak to millions.  1996 edition available in print and online.

Teaching Methodologies in African American Studies

Readings explore and underscore methodology for research and multicultural teaching methods in Black Studies disciplinary orientation

Black Studies Thought , History and Method

Evans, Stephanie Y. , Colette M. Taylor, Michelle R. Dunlap, and DeMond S. Miller.     African Americans and Community Engagement in Higher Education: Community Service, Service-learning, and Community-based Research.   Albany : State University of New York Press, 2009.  263pp.  LC220.5 .A48 2009 : This book discusses race and its roles in university-community partnerships. The contributors take a collaborative, interdisciplinary, and multiregional approach that allows students, agency staff, community constituents, faculty, and campus administrators an opportunity to reflect on and redefine what impact African American identity—in the academy and in the community—has on various forms of community engagement. From historic concepts of “race uplift” to contemporary debates about racialized perceptions of need, they argue that African American identity plays a significant role. In representing best practices, recommendations, personal insight, and informed warnings about building sustainable and mutually beneficial relationships, the contributors provide a cogent platform from which to encourage the difficult and much-needed inclusion of race in dialogues of national service and community engagement.  Also available online.

Rogers, Ibram H. The Black Campus Movement: Black Students and the Racial Reconstitution of Higher Education, 1965 - 1972 (Contemporary Black History). New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.  235pp.  LC2781 .R65 2012 : Between 1965 and 1972, African American students at upwards of a thousand historically black and white American colleges and universities organized, demanded, and protested for Black Studies, Black universities, new faces, new ideas—a relevant, diverse higher education. Black power inspired these black students, who were supported by white, Latino, Chicana, Asian American, and Native American students.The Black Campus Movement provides the first national study of this intense and challenging struggle which disrupted and refashioned institutions in almost every state. This book also illuminates the complex context for one of the most transformative educational movements in American history through a history of black higher education and black student activism before 1965.

Woodson, Carter G.  The mis-education of the NegroTrenton, N.J. : Africa World Press, 1990 (1998 printing).  215pp.  Main Library E185.82 .W86 1990 : Discusses the impact of slavery on the black psyche, questions what and who African Americans are educated for, and explores the difference between education and training

Woodson, Carter G. The mis-education of the NegroWashington, Associated Publishers [1969].  215pp.  Main Library E185.82 .W86 1969 c.6 : Also available.

Woodson, Carter G.   The mis-education of the Negro..  Washington, D.C. : Associated publishers, [c1933]  207pp.   1933 edition available online.

Race in Higher Education

Bell, Derek. Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism. New York: Basic Books, 1992.  222pp.  E185.615 .B395 1992 : The noted civil rights activist uses allegory and historical example to present a radical vision of the persistence of racism in America. These essays shed light on some of the most perplexing and vexing issues of our day: affirmative action, the disparity between civil rights law and reality, the “racist outbursts” of some black leaders, the temptation toward violent retaliation, and much more.

Bell, Derek.  Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform.  Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.  230pp.  Gast Business Library KF4155 .B38 2004 : When the landmark Supreme Court case of Brown vs. Board of Education was handed down in 1954, many civil rights advocates believed that the decision finding public school segregation unconstitutional could become the Holy Grail of racial justice. Fifty years later, despite its legal irrelevance and the racially separate and educationally ineffective state of public schooling for most black children, Brown is still viewed by many as the perfect precedent. ...Derrick Bell here shatters this shining image of one of the Court's most celebrated rulings. He notes that, despite the onerous burdens of segregation, many black schools functioned well and racial bigotry had not rendered blacks a damaged race. Brown's recognition of racial injustice, without more, left racial barriers intact. Given what we now know about the pervasive nature of racism, the Court should have determined--for the first time--to rigorously enforce the "equal" component of the "separate but equal" standard. ...By striking it down, the Court intended both to improve the Nation's international image during the Cold War and offer blacks recognition that segregation was wrong. Instead, the Brown decision actually enraged and energized its opponents. It stirred confusion and conflict into the always vexing question of race in a society that, despite denials and a frustratingly flexible amnesia, owes much of its growth, development, and success, to the ability of those who dominate the society to use race to both control and exploit most people, black and white....Racial policy, Bell maintains, is made through silent covenants--unspoken convergences of interest and involuntary sacrifices of rights--that ensure that policies conform to priorities set by policy-makers. Blacks and whites are the fortuitous winners or losers in these unspoken agreements....The experience with Brown, Bell urges, should teach us that meaningful progress in the quest for racial justice requires more than the assertion of harms. Strategies must recognize and utilize the interest-convergence factors that strongly influence racial policy decisions. In Silent Covenants, Bell condenses more than four decades of thought and action into a powerful and eye-opening book.

Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic, editors. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York: New York University Press, 2001.  167pp.  Gast Business Library KF4755 .D454 2001 : For well over a decade, critical race theory?the school of thought that holds that race lies at the very nexus of American life?has roiled the legal academy. In recent years, however, the fundamental principles of the movement have influenced other academic disciplines, from sociology and politics to ethnic studies and history....And yet, while the critical race theory movement has spawned dozens of conferences and numerous books, no concise, accessible volume outlines its basic parameters and tenets. Here, then, from two of the founders of the movement, is the first primer on one of the most influential intellectual movements in American law and politics.  Also available online

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. “Can We Talk About Race?” And Other Conversations in an Era of School Resegregation". New York: Beacon Press, 2007.  147pp.  LC212.42 .T37 2007 : Explores why it is important for white educators to affirm the identities of African American students, and discusses how the prevalence of racial stereotypes acts as a major psychological challenge uniquely facing African Americans.

Robin Hughes and Mark Gils, “CRiT Walking in Higher Ed: Activating Critical Race Theory in the Academy”, Race, Ethnicity and Education, Volume 13, No 1, March 4, 2010, pp.41 - 57 : In this article, the authors introduce the epistemological concept of CRiT walking based on critical race theory (CRT). Using performance methodology, an operational extension of critical race theory is introduced as a CRiT walk through academic neighborhoods. The authors recommend openly questioning the structural inequities deeply embedded within the academy. In so doing, they take a metaphoric walk through several ‘gated communities’ of higher education. The authors employ inter‐story dialogue, humor, healthy skepticism, and critical reflexivity to highlight typical struggles that many faculty of color confront in the academy. Lastly, the article interrogates assumptions of the higher education enterprise and argues for faculty agency in pursuing their authentic voices despite the pressures of hegemonic policies and practices.

Teaching Learners of Color

Teaching Learners of Color : Community, College Environments, and Achievement.

Cuyjet, Michael J.   African American Men in College.   New York : Jossey-Bass, 2006.  357pp.  LC2781 .A39 2006 : A much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, African American Men in College explores the factors that promote a climate of academic success. The book shows how participation in extracurricular activities can create a positive social climate and examines the advantages of developing communication and leadership skills. It shows how fostering relationships with administrators and community leaders can promote academic success. The book also describes a proven mentoring program and examines the role spirituality and religion can play in bolstering successful college experiences.

Freeman, Kassie and Johnson, Ethan, eds.   Education in the Black Diaspora: Perspectives, Challenges, and Prospects.   Routledge Research in Education Series. New York: Routledge, 2011.  198pp.  Main Library LC2699 .E48 2012 : This volume gathers scholars from around the world in a comparative approach to the various educational struggles of people of African descent, advancing the search for solutions and bringing to light new facets of the experiences of Black people in the era of globalization.

Freire, Paulo.  Education for Critical Consciousness.  New York, Seabury Press [1973].  164pp.  Main Library LC191 .F7613 1973 c.2 : Translation of Educação como prática da liberdade, and of Extensión y comunicación.

Freire, Paulo; Translated by Myra Bergman Ramos.  Pedagogy of the Oppressed.  [New York] Herder and Herder [1970]  186pp.  Main Library LB880 .F7313 : First published in Portuguese in 1968, Pedagogy of the Oppressed was translated and published in English in 1970. The methodology of the late Paulo Freire has helped to empower countless impoverished and illiterate people throughout the world. Freire's work has taken on especial urgency in the United States and Western Europe, where the creation of a permanent underclass among the underprivileged and minorities in cities and urban centers is increasingly accepted as the norm. With a substantive new introduction on Freire's life and the remarkable impact of this book by writer and Freire confidant and authority Donaldo Macedo, this anniversary edition of Pedagogy of the Oppressed will inspire a new generation of educators, students, and general readers for years to come.  20th Anniversary edition, 1993 edition  and 30th anniversary, 2000 edition also available.  Also see Pedagogy of the Oppressed 40th anniversary website for more information.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage (Critical Perspectives Series: A Book Series Dedicated to Paulo Freire).   Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, 2001, c1998. 144pp. Main Library LB880 .F7313  LC196 .F73713 1998.  Available via interlibrary loan. : This book displays the striking creativity and profound insight that characterized Freire's work to the very end of his life - an uplifting and provocative exploration not only for educators, but also for all that learn and live.

Gallien, Louis B. and Peterson, Marshalita S. Instructing and Mentoring the African American College Student: Strategies for Success in Higher Education.  Boston, Mass. : Pearson/A and B, c2005.  196pp.  LC2781 .G33 2005.  Available through Interlibrary Loan : Focuses on the types of academic environments and classroom strategies that are conducive to the achievement levels of African American college students, particularly, in the areas of effective classroom pedagogy, models of successful campus retention and mentoring techniques that have proven to be advantageous for black students across the country. Reflecting on experiences predominately from professors, administrators and staff of two prestigious historically black colleges, this book offers specific strategies on maximizing student success in the context of African American student culture....The first section of the book deals with the historical, contemporary and cultural contexts for the education of African American students. The second section, "Voices from the Field" focuses on proven classroom and administrative strategies that promote academic achievement among black students from professionals at Spelman College and Morehouse College. Both institutions are members of Phi Beta Kappa and have graduated such significant twentieth century historical figures as Martin Luther King, Jr., Julian Bond, Alice Walker and Marian Wright Edelman.

Hilliard, Asa G. Testing African American Students.   Negro Educational Review,  April-July 1987, v. 38, no. 2-3. : Educational experts and psychologists expound upon the handling of testing and language for African American students.

Hooks, Bell.  Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope.  New York: Routledge, 2003.  209pp.   Main Library LC196.5.U6 H66 2003: Ten years ago, bell hooks astonished readers with Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. Now comes Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope - a powerful, visionary work that will enrich our teaching and our lives. Combining critical thinking about education with autobiographical narratives, hooks invites readers to extend the discourse of race, gender, class and nationality beyond the classroom into everyday situations of learning. bell hooks writes candidly about her own experiences. Teaching, she explains, can happen anywhere, any time - not just in college classrooms but in churches, in bookstores, in homes where people get together to share ideas that affect their daily lives....In Teaching Community bell hooks seeks to theorize from the place of the positive, looking at what works. Writing about struggles to end racism and white supremacy, she makes the useful point that "No one is born a racist. Everyone makes a choice." Teaching Community tells us how we can choose to end racism and create a beloved community. hooks looks at many issues-among them, spirituality in the classroom, white people looking to end racism, and erotic relationships between professors and students. Spirit, struggle, service, love, the ideals of shared knowledge and shared learning - these values motivate progressive social change....Teachers of vision know that democratic education can never be confined to a classroom. Teaching - so often undervalued in our society -- can be a joyous and inclusive activity. bell hooks shows the way. "When teachers teach with love, combining care, commitment, knowledge, responsibility, respect, and trust, we are often able to enter the classroom and go straight to the heart of the matter, which is knowing what to do on any given day to create the best climate for learning."

Hooks, Bell. Teaching Critical Thinking: Practical Wisdom. New York: Routledge, 2010.  191pp.  Main Library LB1025.3 .H67 2010 : In Teaching Critical Thinking, renowned cultural critic and progressive educator bell hooks addresses some of the most compelling issues facing teachers in and out of the classroom today....In a series of short, accessible, and enlightening essays, hooks explores the confounding and sometimes controversial topics that teachers and students have urged her to address since the publication of the previous best-selling volumes in her Teaching series, Teaching to Transgress and Teaching Community. The issues are varied and broad, from whether meaningful teaching can take place in a large classroom setting to confronting issues of self-esteem. One professor, for example, asked how black female professors can maintain positive authority in a classroom without being seen through the lens of negative racist, sexist stereotypes. One teacher asked how to handle tears in the classroom, while another wanted to know how to use humor as a tool for learning....Addressing questions of race, gender, and class in this work, hooks discusses the complex balance that allows us to teach, value, and learn from works written by racist and sexist authors. Highlighting the importance of reading, she insists on the primacy of free speech, a democratic education of literacy. Throughout these essays, she celebrates the transformative power of critical thinking. This is provocative, powerful, and joyful intellectual work. It is a must read for anyone who is at all interested in education today.

Hooks, Bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.  216pp.  Main Library  LC196 .H66 1994 : In Teaching to Transgress, bell hooks--writer, teacher, and insurgent black intellectual--writes about a new kind of education, education as the practice of freedom.  Teaching students to "transgress" against racial, sexual, and class boundaries in order to achieve the gift of freedom is, for hooks, the teacher's most important goal.

Strayhorn,Terrell L. and Terrell, Melvin Cleveland (editors). The Evolving Challenges of Black College Students: New Insights for Policy, Practice, and Research. Sterling, VA: Stylus, c2010.  226pp.  Main Library  LC2781 .E86 2010 : Presenting new empirical evidence and employing fresh theoretical perspectives, this book sheds new light on the challenges that Black Students face from the time they apply to college through their lives on campus....The contributors make the case that the new generation of Black students differ in attitudes and backgrounds from earlier generations, and demonstrate the importance of understanding the diversity of Black identity....Successive chapters address the nature and importance of Black spirituality for reducing isolation and race-related stress, and as a source of meaning making; students’ college selection and decision process and the expectations it fosters; first-generation Black women’s motivations for attending college; the social-psychological determinants of academic achievement, and how resiliency can be developed and nurtured; institutional climate and the role of cultural centers; as well as identity development; and mentoring. The book includes a new research study of African American male undergraduates who identify as gay or bisexual; discusses the impact of student-to-student interactions in intellectual development and leadership building; describes the successful strategies used by historically Black institutions with at-risk men; considers the role of parents in Black male students’ lives, and the applicability of the “millennial” label to the new cohort of African American students....The book offers new insights and concrete recommendations for policies and practices to provide the social and academic support for African American students to persist and fully benefit from their collegiate experience. It will be of value to student affairs personnel and faculty; constitutes a textbook for courses on student populations and their development; and provides a springboard for future research.

Strayhorn, Terrell L. "The Influence of Diversity on Learning Outcomes among African American College Students: Measuring Sex Differences”.  Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice September 2013, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp. 339–362.  : National survey data from 594 African American college students were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques to measure the impact of diversity on educational outcomes. Two research questions guided the present study: (a) How do interactional diversity experiences affect learning and development outcomes for African American undergraduates attending 4-year institutions? (b) Does this relationship vary between Black men and women? Results suggest that interactional diversity experiences are positively associated with perceived student learning across all six domains; interactional diversity is one of the strongest, consistent predictors of perceived learning included in the statistical models. Models explain different proportions of the variance in dependent variables, ranging from 16% to 23%. Implications for future policy, practice, and research are discussed.

Strayhorn, Terrell L. . “Factors Influencing the Academic Achievement of First -Generation College Students".   Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice.  January 2007, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp. 1278–1307 : First-generation college students face a number of unique challenges in college. These obstacles may have a disparate effect on educational outcomes such as academic achievement. This study presents findings from an analysis of the Baccalaureate & Beyond Longitudinal Study using hierarchical multiple regression techniques to measure the influence of first-generation status on cumulative grade point average (GPA) in college, controlling for precollege and college variables. Findings suggest that firstgeneration status is a significant predictor of GPA controlling for an extensive array of background and intervening variables. Initially, background variables accounted for a small but significant proportion of college GPA variance. Final results suggest that first-generation status significantly explains differences in cumulative GPA, accounting for nearly 22% (p < .001) of GPA variance. Findings are congruent with college impact theory and support prior conclusions. Still, a number of important relationships and implications for future research are discussed.

Strayhorn, Terrell L.  The Role of Schools, Families, and Psychological Variables on Math Achievement of Black High School Students. The High School Journal, Summer 2010, Volume 93, Number 4, pp. 177-194 : Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS;1988/2000), the author conducted hierarchical linear regression analyses, with a nested design, to estimate the influence of affective variables–parent involvement, teacher perceptions, and school environments–on Black students' math achievement in grade 10. Drawing on Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory and Bourdieu's (1977) concept of cultural capital, the author found that all three systems affect Black students' math achievement, accounting for approximately 20% of the variance in scores. Key findings include the role that locus of control, gender, parental involvement, teacher perceptions, and opportunity to learn play on Black students' math achievement. Important implications for advancing future policy, practice, and research are highlighted. This study's results impact future agendas for maximizing the success of Black students in math.

Strayhorn, Terrell L. . "The Role of Supportive Relationships in Facilitating African American Males' Success in College". Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice.  April 2008, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp. 26-48 : Drawing on Sanford’s notions of challenge and support, coupled with Tinto’s theory on retention, this quantitative investigation sought to measure the association between supportive relationships and success in college for a sample of Black men. Results suggest that supportive relationships are associated with higher levels of satisfaction but not academic achievement as measured by grades. Implications for future policy, practice, and research are discussed in the context of academic and student affairs.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel.  "Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations About Race.  New York: Basic Books, 1997.  270pp.  Main Library E185.625 .T38 1997 : Walk into any racially mixed high school and you will see Black youth seated together in the cafeteria. Of course, it’s not just the Black kids sitting together—the White, Latino, Asian Pacific, and in some regions, American Indian youth, are clustered in their own groups, too. The same phenomenon can be observed in college dining halls, faculty lounges, and in corporate cafeterias.What is going on here? Is this self-segregation a problem we should try to fix, or a coping strategy we should support? How can we get past our reluctance to talk about racial issues to even discuss it? And what about the other questions we and our children have about race?Beverly Daniel Tatum is a renowned authority on the psychology of racism. She asserts that we do not know how to talk about our racial differences: Whites are afraid of using the wrong words and being perceived as “racist.” Parents of color are afraid of exposing their children to painful racial realities too soon. Tatum understands that the vocabulary of race is loaded and that embarrassment and awkwardness often stymie conversations about this subject; yet, she believes that these obstacles can and must be overcome if we are to bring about change.In “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” And Other Conversations About Race, Dr. Tatum provides us with a new way of thinking and talking about race through the lens of racial identity. She explains that all of us have a racial identity and must strive to affirm it. For people of color, the development of a constructive racial identity requires being able to recognize and reject the bombardment of negative stereotypes and to embrace a history of resistance and empowerment rather than passive victimization. For Whites, the challenge is to engage in a process of racial identity development which leads to an awareness of White privilege and a determination to actively work against injustice—and this requires the strength to reject a system that awards them, and to reclaim the legacy of White allies. For many, this is uncharted territory. This book provides a road map for those who want to make the journey and better understand the racial dynamics of their daily lives.Tatum extends her ideas about racial identity development beyond the usual Black-White paradigm to embrace the unique circumstances of Latinos, American Indians, Asians, as well as biracial youth. Also included is a list of resources for further reading as well as a list of books for parents and teachers to recommend to children of all ages.Using real-life examples and the latest research, Tatum presents strong evidence that straight talk about our racial identities—whatever they may be—is essential if we are serious about facilitating communication across racial and ethnic divides. We have waited far too long to begin our conversations about race. This remarkable book, infused with great wisdom and humanity, tells us where to start.

 

Professional Development

Cooper, Tuesday L. The Sista’ Network: African American Women Faculty Successfully Negotiating the Road to Tenure. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Co., 2006.  147pp.  Main Library  LB2335.7 .C66 2006: The “Sista’ Network"”is a term used to describe the relationships between and among professional African-American women which enable them to assist one another in learning the unwritten rules and protocols of various professions. In the context of higher education, the Sista' Network can help new African-American women faculty learn the rules to “the Tenure Game.”...A qualitative inquiry into the lives and experiences of nine African-American women during various stages of the tenure process, this book partly explores general, practical considerations such as the tenure process; requirements for tenure; and negotiating the balance among teaching, research, service, and collegiality. Yet it delves further into the statistics of African-American women faculty in the academy; issues of isolation, mentoring, and networking; African-American women faculty and the tenure process; African-American feminist thought; and racism, sexism, and the politics of singularity....Also included are 12 guiding principles for new African-American women faculty members embarking upon the tenure process. Carefully weaving African-American feminist thought with the literature on academic tenure and minority along with stories of women faculty’s experiences in the academy, the author creates an effective and engaging account for minority women embarking on the tenure journey themselves.

Stanley, Christine A., editor. Faculty of Color: Teaching in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Co., 2006.  379pp.  Main Library LB2332.6 .F33 2006 : Twenty academics contribute 25 chapters describing the experiences of faculty of color in the U.S. The contributors come from a variety of cultures, ethnicities, identities, and nationalities -- African American, American Indian, Asian, Asian American, Chamorro, Jamaican, Latina/Latino, Mexican American, South African, Muslim -- and a broad spectrum of disciplines. In addition to teaching, the essays explore other aspects of the higher education arena such as administration, institutional climate, mentoring, recruitment, relationships with colleagues and students, and research. The text also includes recommendations for faculty development, instructional development, and organizational development practice, and poses questions for commentary and investigation. For senior administrators and policymakers, faculty development professionals, future faculty of color who are contemplating academia and those who are new to the professoriate, and majority white faculty who want to advocate for and mentor faculty of color.

Strayhorn, Terrell L. “Fittin' In: Do Diverse Interactions with Peers Affect Sense of Belonging for Black Men at Predominantly White Institutions?” Journal of Student Affairs Research and PracticeJanuary 2009, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 953–979 : Prior research on interacting with diverse peers focuses on pooled samples including all racial/ethnic groups or specific subpopulations such as women and White men. Research on sense of belonging has tended to include part-time learners, Asians, and Latinos, but no studies were readily uncovered that focus on Black men. Addressing this gap in the literature, College Student Experiences Questionnaire data were analyzed for 231 Black and 300 White men (N = 531). Results suggest that cross-racial interactions were significant predictors for both groups; however, interactions with peers who have different interests was significant for Black men only. Implications for future practice and research are discussed.

Viernes Turner, Caroline Sotello and Myers, Jr., Samuel L.  Faculty of Color in Academe : Bittersweet Success.  Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, a Pearson Education Company, 2000.  257pp.  LB2332.72 .T87 2000 : Focuses on inequities based on racial and ethnic differences within the professional workplace in higher education. This book draws on a comprehensive study of African American, Asian, Pacific American, American Indian, and Latino faculty in eight mid-western states. By using both narrative and statistical data, this book provides an in-depth view of the issues surrounding the successful recruitment, retention, and development of faculty of color. Key Topics: The authors attempt to capture and describe some of the similarities and differences experienced by faculty among each of the above mentioned racial/ethnic groups. Includes a comprehensive discussion of what needs to be done in order to achieve diversity in the teaching profession. Market: Scholars, practitioners, and decision-makers will benefit from the information provided in this book.

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