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WRA 101 (Hooker): Articles

Dr. Clarence Hooker's sections

Popular or Scholarly?

Video tutorial to help you tell the difference between three major types of articles, and tips for using each one.

A chart comparing popular and scholarly articles

Scholarly Articles

Historical Newspaper Databases

19th Century U.S. Newspapers via Gale : This database is composed of approximately 500 U.S. newspapers, published between 1800 and 1900. It includes titles from throughout the United States, including many published in what were, at the time, only territories. The publisher selected newspapers on their immediate value to researchers on the press and on the century in general. They also selected papers for their value for undergraduate and graduate students. The publisher made certain that the papers selected covered a broad spectrum, with a comprehensive geographical and chronological range. Full-text searching allows users to search across the entire database for the specific term/subject/person/event they are looking for. Moreover, searches can be restricted by categories (such as, Advertising, Business News, Images, Editorials, etc.), by states & cities, and by date of publication. Finally, the publisher has commissioned a number of scholarly essays on topics and events such as the Confederacy, fires & firefighting, immigration, and elections.

Access World News, Research Collection (NewsBank)  This comprehensive news collection (1903 to date)  is ideal for exploring issues and events at the local, regional, national and international level. Its diverse source types include print and online-only newspapers, blogs, newswires, journals, broadcast transcripts and videos. Use it to explore a specific event or to compare a wide variety of viewpoints on topics such as politics, business, health, sports, cultural activities and people. Content is easily searched and sorted through an intuitive, map-based interface.

America's Historical Newspapers, Series 6 and 7, 1741-1922, see Michigan's Historical Newspapers.  Although labeled Michigan's Historical Newspapers, this collection of newspapers from Readex/Newsbank also contains newspapers from other states.  Readex has recently bundled various other packages under this title, including African American Newspapers, 1827-1998; Ethnic American Newspapers from the Balch Collection, 1799-1971; Hispanic American Newspapers, 1808-1980 and Selected Historical Newspapers.

Atlanta Constitution (1881-1945)(1869-1875) , (1876-1881) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.

Atlanta Historic Newspapers Archive (1847-1922).  Though limited to one city, this site still manages to have more than 67,000 newspaper pages from 14 newspapers published in Atlanta between 1847 and 1922. The front page has both two browse options (view by title/year or year/title) and a search box with a few extra pulldown options. Choose a result and DjVu plug-in will kick in, showing you the page. From here you can zoom (though if you zoom too much everything’s unreadable) copy certain aspects of the page, move the page around, etc. For the most part I found everything readable though occasionally a paper was stained around its edges and occasionally impossible to read.  Note: you may have to download the DjVu plug in on your computer to view the papers.

Baltimore Sun (1837-1987) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.

Boston Globe (1872-1981) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.

Brooklyn Daily Eagle (1841-1902) courtesy of the Brooklyn (New York) Public Library.  One of the most widely read afternoon newspapers in the United States during the Civil War.  Searchable by keyword or date.

Christian Science Monitor (1908-2003) via Proquest Historical Newspapers

Chicago Tribune (1849-1989) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.

Chronicling America : Historic American Newspapers (1860-1922) : Chronicling America allows you to search and read newspaper pages from 1860-1922 and find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress as part of the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP). Over a period of approximately 20 years, NDNP will create a national, digital resource of historically significant newspapers published between 1836 and 1922 from all U.S. states and territories. At present (September 2013) newspapers from Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia are available full text.  For a brief list of some of the topics covered by Chronicling America, click here.  For a list of newspapers covered, click here. Chronicling America also offers an interesting new feature called 100 Years Ago Today.

Cincinnati Daily Enquirer (1845-1849) via Proquest Historical Newspapers

Cincinnati Daily Enquirer (1852-1872) via Proquest Historical Newspapers

Cincinnati Enquirer (1849-1852) via Proquest Historical Newspapers. 

Cincinnati Enquirer (1872-1922) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.

Civil War: A Newspaper Perspective via Accessible Archives : This database contains the full text of major articles gleaned from over 2,500 issues of The New York Herald, The Charleston Mercury and the Richmond Enquirer, published between November 1, 1860 and April 15, 1865. The text begins with the events preceding the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, continues through the surrender at Appomattox, and concludes with the assassination and funeral of Abraham Lincoln. Included are descriptive news articles, eye-witness accounts and official reports of battles and events, editorials, advertisements and biographies. A great effort has been made also to include articles which describe other than military concerns of the day. These include such topics as travel, arts and leisure, geographical descriptions, sports and sporting, social events, etc.

The Civil War in America from The Illustrated London News : Most people may have a sense of how American newspapers reported on the Civil War, but how did journalists over in London approach this four year conflict? The people at the Beck Center at Emory University, in collaboration with Sandra J. Still and Emily E. Katt, created this digital archive of the Illustrated London News during the Civil War years. The initial phase of this archive began in 1988 when Still and Katt began to collect the ten bound volumes of the Illustrated London News that they would eventually digitize with the assistance of the Beck Center. On the homepage, visitors can look over the various articles from the London News by clicking on the "Articles" area and then view the accompanying illustrative material that accompanied each article in the "Illustrations" area of the site. Visitors are also welcome to search the entire text or illustrations via a convenient search engine.

Denver Post Historical Newspaper 1894-1989 (Newsbank).   Ordered June 15, 2018.

Early American Newspapers, Series 6 and 7, see Michigan's Historical Newspapers.  Although labeled Michigan's Historical Newspapers, this compilation from Readex also contains selected newspapers from around the country.

Farm, Fields, and Fireside.  Together with the introduction of rural mail delivery, the telephone, and the automobile, farm newspapers played a key role in the modernization of rural America. The Farm, Field and Fireside collection contains historically significant U.S. farm weeklies published in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Courtesy of the History, Philosophy and Newspaper Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Gale NewsVault.  A portal for searching the following:

Google Newspaper Archive : A broad range of historical newspapers. Many are free to use, some require a fee to access.  Google began this project in 2008.  Google, in partnership with a number of North American newspapers, ProQuest and Heritage, has begun digitizing printed newspapers, making them both searchable and browsable exactly as they appeared in print, including photographs, headlines, articles and advertisements.  Unfortunately Google decided to drop the project so no new content is being added.

Harpers Weekly (1857-1912). Famous nineteenth century journal/newspaper with much commentary about various American issues.

Illinois Digital Newspaper Collections.  This collection contains 45 newspaper titles, 83,614 issues comprising 1,043,532 pages and 6,648,636 articles.... Since 2005, the History, Philosophy, and Newspaper Library at the University of Illinois has been developing unique digital newspaper content. The works collected here include digital facsimilies of newspapers and trade journals in a variety of fields. Users may search, browse, tag, and correct OCR text to improve searchability and access.

Indiana Farmer 1851-1917).  The digital Indiana Farmer gives a rare view of rural Hoosier life from 1851 to 1917. It includes articles about the mechanization of Hoosier agriculture, the founding of Purdue University and the first Indiana State Fair.

Ku Klux Klan Newspapers (1920s) from RevealDigital.

Los Angeles Times (1886-1990) from Proquest Historical Newspapers.  Provides comprehensive coverage for Southern California's largest daily newspaper. Includes all the articles published since the first issue of the paper in 1881. Provides full text and full image articles with digital reproductions of every page, every article and every issue in PDF format. In addition to news stories, includes editorials, letters to the editor, obituaries, birth and marriage announcements, photos, and advertisements.

Louisville Courier Journal (1830 - 1922) from Proquest Historical Newspapers.

The Nashville Tennessean (1812-1922) from Proquest Historical Newspapers. 

New Orleans Times-Picayune (1837-1988).  Available via Early American Newspapers, Series VII, from Readex.

New York Times (1851-2009) via Proquest Historical Newspapers : A unique resource for primary source documents. The New York Times, long known for providing 'All the News That is Fit to Print' has set the standard for quality journalism since 1851. This respected source provides news and viewpoints from the United States and around the world. Newspapers offer a glimpse into the opinions, biases and prejudices, and knowledge of a certain time or author. Educators can use the articles and images contained in The New York Times to help teach skills such as critical thinking, historical interpretation and context, writing and composition, and information literacy; can supplement lessons in many different disciplines; and can offer multidisciplinary approaches to subjects. Students gain a better understanding and appreciation of the past through sources that illustrate historical information via a relevant medium still used today. The variety of information spanning more than 150 years found in The New York Times provides resources applicable to the study of the Arts, Business, Communications and Media, Economics, Geography, Government, Health, History, Language Arts, Science, Technology, and more.

North Carolina Digitization Project. A project of the North Carolina State Archives, this collection contains over 23,000 pages from newspapers dating from 1751 until 1898. Click on the link "Newspapers Included" to see the current list of titles from 6 towns. The runs are mostly short, sometimes with only 2 or 3 issues from one paper. Advertisements are included, including indexing of the text. In addition to browsing, you can search by keyword, year, or a particular newspaper

Proquest Civil War Era Newspaper and Pamphlet Collection. This collection illuminates the cultural, regional, ethical, and economic viewpoints from the American Civil War period (1840-1865). Available together digitally for the first time, eight regionally balanced cover-to-cover newspapers and nearly 2,000 pamphlets offer comprehensive coverage of a vast range of Civil War Era research topics.  Newspaper Sources (1840-1865) allows researchers to follow the development of issues leading to the Civil War as recorded in the papers of the South, North, Mississippi Valley, and Border States.  Many interrelated forces influenced the course of events during this 25-year period, and Civil War Era allows serious researchers to discover the details.
--Southern Titles: Richmond Dispatch (Virginia), Charleston Mercury (South Carolina), New Orleans Times Picayune (Louisiana)
--Northern Titles: Boston Herald, New York Herald, Columbus State Journal(Ohio)
--Border State/Mississippi Valley Titles: The Kentucky Daily Journal, Memphis Daily Appeal

Proquest Historical NewspapersIncludes the full text of: Atlanta Constitution (1868-1988), Baltimore Sun (1837-1991), Boston Globe (1872-1985), Chicago Tribune (1849-1993), Christian Science Monitor (1908-2003), Detroit Free Press (1831-1999), L.A. Times (1881-1993), Louisville Courier Journal (1830-1922), Nashville Tennessean (1812-1922), New York Times (1851-2013), SF Chronicle (1865-1922), St. Louis Post Dispatch (1923-2003), Wall Street Journal (1889-1999), Washington Post (1877-2000), Jerusalem Post 1932-1988), and the Times of India (1838-2007). It also includes historical black newspapers: Atlanta Daily World (1931-2003), Chicago Defender (1909-1975), Los Angeles Sentinel (1934-2005) New Amsterdam News (1922-1993), and the Pittsburgh Courier (1911-2002). Finally, it contains these aggregators: "Ethnic NewsWatch" (1959-present) and "ProQuest Civil War Era" (selected newspapers and pamphlets from 1850-1870).  Please note : Detroit Free Press (1923-1999) can only be searched using the Advanced Search full text Anywhere option. No results will be retrieved otherwise.

San Francisco Chronicle (1869-1922) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.

South Carolina Digital Newspaper Program.    The University of South Carolina is taking the lead in digitizing historical South Carolina newspapers, primarily through Chronicling America.

The Southern Courier (1965-1968).  In process.  From 1965 to 1968, provided weekly local coverage of the people, places, and events that shaped the civil rights movement in the American South.  The young reporters, photographers, and staff of the Southern Courier offered unique and intimate accounts of both sides in the struggle for equality and justice -- at the polls, in schools, in the churches, in city halls, statehouses and courthouses.  Beneath the history-making stories of change, violence, tragedy, and occasional triumph, the Southern Courier alos provided a close-up look at the communities and everyday lives of people in Alabama and throughout the South.  This digital edition allows readers, for the first time, to browse, read, and search all 177 issues

St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1879-1922) via  ProQuest Historical Newspapers. 

St. Louis Post Dispatch (1923-2003) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.    Ordered June 15, 2018.

Stars and Stripes (World War I) : Full text of the complete seventy-one-week run of the official newspaper of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF).  Courtesy of the Library of Congress American Memory Project.

Toledo Blade (1879-1924, 1940-2007) via Google Newspaper Archive.

Virginia Gazette, 1736-1780. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation has made a full-text version of this key newspaper available, which covered all of Virginia and included some information for other colonies, Scotland, England etc. Not all the issues survived, and some have surfaced since they were first reproduced on microfilm in the mid-twentieth century that is the basis for the digital version.

Wall Street Journal (1889-1922) via Proquest.

Wall Street Journal (1923-1995) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.

Washington Post (1877-1997) via Proquest Historical Newspapers. 

Wyoming Newspaper Project (1849-1922). The project now contains 791,764 full pages . There are apparently still gaps in the coverage, however, and the state of Wyoming is teaming up with the Library of Congress to scan the Wyoming newspapers in the LOC collection. Those will show up over time. You can browse the offerings by city, county, year, or newspaper title, or search by keyword, concept, or pattern. Even though you can do keyword searching, you’ll find that the content is available as downloaded PDF pages, and that the pages are complete, including advertisements

Michigan Historical Newspapers

Ann Arbor Argus 

Ann Arbor Argus (1888-1898).  The Ann Arbor Argus grew out of the Michigan Argus, renamed by new owner John N. Bailey beginning with the October 17, 1879 issue. The democratic paper frequently switched between weekly and semi-weekly publication throughout its history. The Ann Arbor Argus name ended (for a time) when it merged with Ann Arbor Democrat and Ypsilanti Weekly Times into one newspaper, the Ann Arbor Argus-Democrat.  Old News has digitized issues and articles of the Ann Arbor Argus from 1888-1898,

Ann Arbor Argus-Democrat (1898-1899).  The Ann Arbor Argus-Democrat was formed in October 1898 when the Ann Arbor Argus, Ann Arbor Democrat, and Ypsilanti Weekly Times merged into one newspaper. It was published under this name until January 1906, when it was renamed the Ann Arbor Weekly Argus, having become largely a weekly reprinting of articles published in the Ann Arbor Daily Argus. The Ann Arbor Argus-Democrat was the leading weekly Democratic paper published in Ann Arbor during this time.  Old News has digitized issues and articles of the Ann Arbor Argus-Democrat from 1898-1899.

Ann Arbor Courier (1880-1888).  The Ann Arbor Courier was a weekly newspaper published in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The Ann Arbor Courier began in 1876 after changing it's name from the Peninsular Courier and Family Visitant and continued to be published until it purchased rival newspaper the Ann Arbor Register and became the Courier-Register in 1899. The Ann Arbor Courier was owned and edited for its entire run by members of the Beal family, first Rice Beal and then his son Junius Beal. Old News has digitized issues and articles of the Ann Arbor Courier from 1880-1888.

Ann Arbor News.  The Ann Arbor News known to us until recently began under that name in 1927. It grew out of a long line of newspapers with frequent name changes including the Ann Arbor Times, Daily Times News, even Ann Arbor News for short time. This time the name stuck and the paper was Ann Arbor's major daily until ceasing publication in July 2009. Along with articles from the Ann Arbor News, Old News also features photos from the photographic negatives file, including never-before published images.  Additional indexes available.

Ann Arbor Sun (1967-1976).  The Sun was the newspaper for a succession of communities around the paper's founder and first editor, John Sinclair. Begun in 1967 in Detroit as the Warren-Forrest Sun, the name was changed to the Ann Arbor Sun when the Trans-Love Energies commune moved to Ann Arbor in 1968 and set up shop at 1510 and 1520 Hill St. The newspaper was the mouthpiece for the White Panther Party and the succeeding Rainbow People's Party before being an independent publication devoted to local issues, left-wing politics, music, and arts. To learn more about the Sun, the White Panther/Rainbow People's Party, and John Sinclair, go to Freeing John Sinclair. Old News has digitized issues and articles of the Sun from 1967-1976.

Cass City Chronicle (1881-2009)

Cass County Republican (1858-1880) - Dowagiac.. Courtesy of Chronicling America.

Constantine Republican (1836-1838) - Constantine.  Courtesy of Chronicling America

Detroit Free Press (1831-1922) via Proquest Historical Newspapers.

Detroit Free Press (1923-1999) via Proquest Historical Newspapers

Detroit Gazette (1817-1830)

Detroit News (1999-date) via Newsbank's World News Access.  Note: coverage range is complete although the company promises to fill in missing years over time.

Detroit News (1873-1985) via Newsbank's World News Access.  Note: coverage range is complete although the company promises to fill in missing years over time. 

Detroit News (1873-1985) via Readex's America's Historical Newspapers.

Gobles Newspaper (1925-1932) Digitized by the Van Buren District Library.

Grand Haven News (1858-1866).  Courtesy of Chronicling America

Grand Rapids Press (01/03/1893-12/30/1922) via Michigan's Historical Newspapers (Readex)

Grand River Times (1851-1857) - Grand Haven.  Courtesy of Chronicling America

Kalamazoo Gazette (1837-1922) via Michigan's Historical Newspapers (Readex)

Lansing State Republican (1859).  In honor of Lansing, Michigan’s sesquicentennial, the Lansing State Journal has made digital copies of all of the 1859 issues of Lansing State Republican, one of the city’s two newspapers at the time (the one that espoused the Republican anti-slavery cause) which was a precursor to the LSJ. Thanks to the Capital Area District Library for use of its more readable microfilm and to Graphic Sciences Inc. in Royal Oak for digitization services.   Note: Available on microfilm at the Library of Michigan.

Manchester Enterprise (1867-1918).  Digitized by the Manchester District Library.

Michigan Daily (1947-2009).  Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Michigan's Historical Newspapers (Readex/Newsbank) : Covers various Michigan newspapers such as:

  • Grand Rapids Herald (01/01/1898 - 12/31/1900)
  • Grand Rapids Press(01/03/1893 - 12/30/1922)
  • Jackson Citizen Patriot (08/15/1849 - 12/31/1922)
  • Kalamazoo Gazette (03/26/1872 - 09/04/1919)
  • Lake Superior Miner (10/06/1855 - 09/10/1870)
  • Northern Islander (12/12/1850 - 06/20/1856)
  • Weekly Detroit Free Press and Supp.. The Household (01/02/1886 - 06/04/1887)


To access holdings, click on place of publication (click Michigan) and then click on newspaper ttitles.

Michigan State Journal (1841-1847).  Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Michigan Tribune (1871-1882).  Battle Creek, Michigan.

Middleville Sun (1896-1897). Digitized by the Thornapple Kellogg School and Community Library.

Newspaper Archive provides access to various Michigan newspapers and other newspapers around the country.  Click on Michigan and view possibilities.  Note:  coverage varies widely since the MSU Library does not subscribe to this product.

Northern Tribune (1875-1885) - Cheybogen.  Courtesy of Chronicling America

Old Fulton New York Postcards : Tom Tryniski's site, which he created in his living room in upstate New York, has grown into one of the largest historic newspaper databases in the world, with over 22 million newspaper pages.  Most of the papers Tryniski has digitized are from New York, but he’s rapidly expanding his coverage to other states as well. He is adding new content at a rate of about a quarter-million pages per month with no plans to slow down.

Owosso Press and Owosso Weekly Press (1862-1869).  Digitized by the Shiawassee District Library.

The Progress Advance and Newsweekly (1980, 1983-1995).  Digitized by the Pigeon District Library.

Saugatuck-Douglas Commercial Record (1868-1959)

Signal of Liberty (1841-1848) : Theodore Foster and Rev. Guy Beckley of Ann Arbor, Michigan, launched the Signal of Liberty in April 1841 and managed to go to press nearly every week. Foster and Beckley were strong abolitionists who wrote in the Signal of Liberty of helping people escaping from slavery. The editors interviewed self-emancipated men and women, hoping to arouse sympathy for abolitionism. The events and movements described in the Signal of Liberty help us understand the issues that led people to resist slavery, change their churches and political parties, and fight for freedom.  Digitized by the Ann Arbor District Library.

Walled Lake Gazette (scattered issues from 1991 and 1993).  Digitized by the Walled Lake City Library.

Weekly Expositor (1882-1892) - Brockway Centre. Courtesy of Chronicling America

Ypsilanti Sentinel (1843-1848).  Courtesy of Chronicling America

Note:  also check the Michigan Newspaper tab.

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