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How to Cite Data: Dataset Citations

Style Manual Examples

APA Style

APA 6th edition
For a complete description of citation guidelines refer to pp. 210-211 (datset) and p. 212 (unpublished raw data) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition [Call Number: Reference BF76.7 .P83 2010].

Data set

Basic form:
Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.
or
Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http:// 

Example: 
Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/

Unpublished raw data from study, untitled work

Basic form: 
Author, F. N. (Year). [Description of study topic]. Unpublished raw data.

Example:
Smith, J.A. (2006). [Personnel survey]. Unpublished raw data.

APA Style Guide to Electronic References
For a complete description of citation guidelines refer to p. 16 of the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007) [Call Number: Reference BF11 .A6722 2007].

Data set

Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey [Data file and code book]. Available from Pew Hispanic Center Web site: http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/

Note: Available from, rather than Retrieved from, indicates that the URL takes you to a download site, rather than directly to the data set file itself.

Graphic Representation of Data

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). [Interactive map showing percentage of respondents reporting "no" to, During the past month, did you participate in any physical activities?]. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Retrieved from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/gisbrfss/default.aspx

APA 5th edition
For a complete description of citation guidelines refer to p. 264 (unpublished raw data) and p.281 (data file, available from government agency and from NTIS website) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition [Call Number: Reference BF11 .A672 2001].

Unpublished raw data from study, untitled work

Basic form: 
Author, F. N. (Year). [Description of study topic]. Unpublished raw data.

Example:
Smith, J.A. (2006). [Personnel survey]. Unpublished raw data.

APSA Style Manual for Political Science

For a complete description of citation guidelines refer to p. 30 of the APSA Style Manual for Political Science.

Data Archived and Available at the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR)

Eldersveld, Samuel J., John E. Jackson, M. Kent Jennings, Kenneth Lieberthal, Melanie Manion, Michael Oksenberg, Zhefu Chen, Hefeng He, Mingming Shen, Qingkui Xie, Ming Yang, and Fengchun Yang. 1996. Four-County Study of Chinese Local Government and Political Economy, 1990 [computer file] (Study #6805). ICPSR version. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan/Beijing, China: Beijing University [producers], 1994. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1996.

American Sociological Association Style Guide

For a complete description of citation guidelines refer to p. 104 of the ASA Style Guide [Call Number: Reference HM569 .A54 2007]

Machine-Readable Data Files

CBS News. 2009. CBS News Poll: Energy USCBS2009-02A Version 2 [MRDF]. New York: CBS News [producer]. Storrs, CT: The Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, University of Connecticut [distributor].

Data Archive Examples

ICPSR Data Archive

Duncan, Otis D., and Howard Schuman. Detroit Area Study, 1971: Social Problems and Social Change in Detroit [Computer file]. ICPSR07325-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1997. doi:10.3886/ICPSR07325

Read the FAQ page, Why and How Should I Cite Data?, for additional information on citing ICPSR datasets.

Manuscripts and dissertations based on ICPSR data should be submitted for inclusion in the ICPSR Bibliography of Data-Related Literature.

Roper Center for Public Opinion Research Data Archive

Cable News Network & USA Today. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll: Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina [computer file]. 1st Roper Center for Public Opinion Research version. Lincoln, NE: Gallup Organization [producer], 2006. Storrs, CT: The Roper Center, University of Connecticut [distributor], 2006.

Read the How to Cite Roper Center data page for additional information.

Papers published based on Roper Center data may be submitted to the Bibliography of publications using data from the Roper Center.

Dataverse Network

Gary King; Langche Zeng, 2006, "Replication Data Set for 'When Can History be Our Guide? The Pitfalls of Counterfactual Inference'" hdl:1902.1/DXRXCFAWPK UNF:3:DaYlT6QSX9r0D50ye+tXpA== Murray Research Archive [distributor]

Read the Data Citations page for additional information.

Publisher Examples

National Center for Education Statistics

Kroe, E. (2002). Data File (Public-Use): Public Libraries Survey, Fiscal Year 1994 (NCES 2003–304). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: 2002.

Holton, B., and George, A. (2007). Data File and Documentation, Public Use: Academic Libraries Survey (ALS): Fiscal Year 1996 (NCES 2008-318). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008318.

Centers for Disease Control/National Center for Health Statistics

National Center for Health Statistics. National Ambulatory Medical Survey, 1994. Public-use data file and documentation. ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/. 1996.

Read the Citing Electronic Media page for more information.

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