For more information check the guide, below, in our Reference shelf. Another option is the popular APA guide from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL).
(Whenever you 'borrow' article quotes, paraphrases, reports, and data, from other researchers/databases, you need to cite the material in order to (1) abide by U.S. copyright law, and, (2) allow your reader a path to the material in its original composition.)
While the APA provides instructions for citing standard publication types, some business resources have unique elements that make it necessary for us to make some adaptations. Check with your instructor for any requirements.
ABI/INFORM Complete (Dateline, Global, and Trade & Industry)
Surchi, M. (2011). The temporary store: A new marketing tool for fashion brands. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 15(2), 257-270. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13612021111132672.
MPA — the Association of Magazine Media, Kantar Media. (2010). Honda: Media mix 2009. Retrieved from Ad$pender database.
Ad $ Summary
Ad $ summary multi-media service, January-December 2008. (2008). New York, NY: Magazine Publishers of America, Inc.
Element 79. (n.d.) Frito Lay: Baby steps. Retrieved from AdForum database.
Advertising Red Books
Advertising Red Books. (2006). Energizer Holdings, Inc. profile. Retrieved from Advertising Red Books database.
Applied Science and Business Periodicals Retrospective Index
Severiens, J. (1982). Foreign buyers of US firms: their performance records. Mergers & Acquisitions, 16, 47-51. Retrieved from Applied Sci & Business Retro database.
Gale. (2015). Polish Falcons of America - Nest 652. Retrieved from Associations Unlimited.
Automotive News Data Center
Automotive News Data Center (2012). U.S. light-vehicle sales by nameplate, Aug. & YTD. Retrieved from Automotive News Data Center database.
BizMiner. (2011, December). Industry financial report (5 year);  Sector: Manufacturing; sales class: $250- $499.99m. Retrieved from the BizMiner database.
Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.
Business Monitor International. (2015). Industry Trend Analysis - Healthcare Costs Poised For An Increase. [United States: Pharmaceuticals & Health care]. Retrieved from BMI Research database.
BNA Labor and Employment Law Resource Center
U.S. Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit (1985). MERWINE v. BD. OF TRUSTEES, 37 FEP Cases 340. Retrieved from Bloomberg BNA Labor and Employment Law Resource Center.
BNA Tax and Accounting Center
The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. (2010). U.S. income portfolios compensation planning: Portfolio 358-3rd, cash or deferred arrangements. Retrieved from BNA Tax and Accounting Center.
Brands and Their Companies
Gale Group. (2010). Cadbury creme eggs. Brands and Their Companies. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database.
Business Abstracts with Full Text
Cendrowski, S. (2012). Nike's New Marketing Mojo. Fortune, 165(3), 80-88.
Business Book Summaries
(Note: Cite from the book, not Business Book Summaries database.)
Synergos Technologies, Inc.(2015). Local Sewing Something. Landscape Report. Retrieved from Business Decision database. www.civictechnologies.com.
Business Insights: Essentials
Gale Group. (2012). Other Snack Food Manufacturing [industry profile]. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.
Gale Group. (2012). Hilton Worldwide. [company profile]. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.
"TwitCover.com Launches as the Premier Destination for High Quality Twitter Headers." (2012, October 1). PRWeb Newswire. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.
Business Rankings Annual
Gale Group. (2010). World's largest candy companies, 2008. Business Rankings Annual. Retrieved from
Gale Directory Library database.
Business Source Complete
Laird, K. (2008). Missing: Statue of Liberty. Marketing Magazine, 113(8), 8.
Datamonitor. (2011). Hilton Worldwide [company profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Datamonitor. (2011). Hotels & Motels [industry profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
McFadden, D. T., Umberger, W., & Wilson, J. (2009). Growing a niche market: A targeted marketing plan for Colorado Homestead
CB Insights.(2015, February, 17) Samsonite. Investors Profile. Retrieved from CB Insights database.
CCH Internet Tax Research NetWork
Mombrun, R. (2006, September 1). Let's protect our economy and democracy: The case for keeping the estate tax. The Tax Magazine,
84(9). Retrieved from CCH Internet Tax Research NetWork database.
China Data Online
All China Marketing Research.(2001-2004) Casting Machinery(Basic Condition). China Monthly Industrial Data 1999-2002(Economy Index). Retrieved from China Data Online.
Communication & Mass Media Complete
Johnson, B. (2010). Ad spending is on the rise, but growth rate may slow. Advertising Age, 81(45), 8-14.
The Conference Board Inc. (2010). Top executive compensation in 2008. Retrieved from The Conference Board Research Online
Liberman, V. (2009). Clicking with customers. The Conference Board Review, May/June 2009. Retrieved from The Conference Board
Research Online Collection database.
Consultants & Consulting Organizations Directory
Geesemen, P. (2015). Hoysler Associates Inc. Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory. 40 ed. vol.7 p.2439. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database..
CorporateAffiliations.com. (2006). Dell, Inc. profile. Retrieved June 25, 2006, from Corporate Affiliations database.
Deals (via ThomsonONE)
Thomson Reuters. (2010). Company Overview: AT&T Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from Thomson ONE database.
DemographicsNow Library Edition
Alteryx Inc. (2015). Demographic Snapshot Comparison, Geography: City - New Orleans, City - Detroit, City - East Lansing. Retrieved from DemographicsNow Library Edition database.
Kurov, A. (2010). Investor sentiment and the stock market's reaction to monetary policy. Journal of Banking and Finance, 34(1), 139-49.
Retrieved from EconLit database.
Economist Intelligence Unit
The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. (2001, November). Pakistan country report. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.
Peart, M., Bendtsen, C. (2015). US Time Spent With Media: eMarketer's Updated Estimates for Fall 2015. Report. Retrieved from eMarketer database.
EMIS. (2013, July 20). Hotel listings. China Daily. Retrieved from EMIS Professional database.
Encyclopedia of American Industries
Gale. (2005). SIC 2024 Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts. Encyclopedia of American Industries, Vol. 1:
Manufacturing Industries. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database.
Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns
(2007). Burger King Corp. Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 2. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library
Entrepreneurship (via ProQuest)
Parsons, A.G. (2009). Use of scent in a naturally odourless store. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 37(5)440-452. Retrieved from ProQuest Entrepreneurship database.
E-Reference Books and Directories
Cite the actual book or directory, formatted like a print citation for that type of work.
The Risk Management Association (2010). 326160 - Plastics bottle manufacturing 2009/2010. Retrieved from eStatement Studies database.
Routledge. (2015). Instituto Nacional de Administracion Publica (INAP) (Guatemala). Retrieved from Europa World online.
Hudson, K. (2006, September 28). Wal-Mart to trim options for health coverage. The Wall Street Journal, p. B2.
Retrieved from Factiva database.
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). (2010). Accounting standards codification TM. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Retrieved from http://asc.fasb.org/
Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies (FAITS)
Gitomer, J. (2006). Wi-Fi market trends. Retrieved from Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies database.
Freedonia Focus. (2010, May). Freedonia focus on biotechnology: Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved from Freedonia Focus database.
Frost & Sullivan
Mendelson, J. (2015). Electro-Optical/Infrared Systems - Technology Trends Impacting Military and Aerospace Sectors (TechVision). Technical Insights Reports. Retrieved from Frost & Sullivan database.
Gale Virtual Reference Library
Note: Cite the actual book or encyclopedia, formatted like a print citation for that type of work.
Lopez, J. & Raskino, M. (2006). What information will executives need in 2012? Retrieved from Gartner database.
Baker, V. L., Weiner A., McGuire, M., Koslowski, T., Brancheau, J., & Reali, P. A., et al. (2006). Hype cycle
for consumer technologies, 2006. Retrieved from Gartner database.
Kitagawa, M. & Gammage, B. (2006). Magic quadrant for global enterprise notebook PCs, 2H06. Retrieved
from Gartner database.
General BusinessFile ASAP
Kiviat, B. (2006, December 18). The big gulp at Starbucks. Time, 168, 124. Retrieved
from General BusinessFile ASAP database.
Garcia, B. (2006, December 14). Starbucks Coffee launches 'Black Apron Exclusives'. Kuwait Times, pNA.
Retrieved from General BusinessFile ASAP database.
MSU-CIBER globalEDGE. (2007). Country insights: Ireland. Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://globaledge.msu.edu/.
GuideStar USA, Inc. (2011). Ele's Place, Inc. mission statement. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from GuideStar Premium database.
Obama, B. (2015). Administration of Barack Obama, 2015 Notice - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran. Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, 1. Retrieved from HeinOnLine database.
Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition
Hall, P. D., & Burke, C. B., (2006) Nonprofit, Voluntary, and Religious Entities. Historical Statistics of the United States. Millennial Edition Online.
Hospitality & Tourism Complete
Lockyer, S.E. (2004). P.F. Chang's makes accounting changes, takes $11.5M charge. Nation's Restaurant
News, 38(13), 11. Retrieved from Hospitality & Tourism Complete database.
Human Resources Library
Bloomberg BNA. (2015). HR Policy Handbook. Performance Appraisal, Training and Productivity. HR and Payroll Resource Center. Retrieved from Human Resources Library database.
IBISWorld. (2007, November). Casino hotels in the US. Retrieved December 12, 2007, from
IBIS Industry Market Research database.
International Country Risk Guide
The PRS Group, Inc. (2009, September 1). Libya country analysis. The PRS Group/International Country Risk Guide. Retrieved from
LexisNexis Academic database.
International Financial Statistics Online
International Monetary Fund. (2010, January). Australia country tables. Retrieved January 18, 2009, from International Financial Statistics Online database.
Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Data Archive
Note: instructions for citing data from this database is available from the database at http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/content/shared/ICPSR/faqs/why-and-how-should-i-cite-data.html
Investext Current Reports
Datamonitor. (2009). Target corporation company profile. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Investext Current Reports database.
Goodman, J. P., & Sandberg, W. R.. (1981). A Contingency Approach to Labor Relations Strategies. The Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 145–154. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/257148
Woodyard, C. (2006, December 27). Car-stereo units put video iPods on the road. USA Today, p. 3B.
Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.
Hoover's. (2007, January 2). Johnson & Johnson. Hoover's Company Records - In-depth Records.
Retrieved March 14, 2007, from LexisNexis Academic database.
MarketLine. (2012, June 28). Hilton Worldwide. [company profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.
MarketLine. (2011, November 2). United States - Hotels & Motels. [industry profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.
Market Share Reporter
Gale. (2010). Consumer electronics sales, 2008. Market Share Reporter. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database.
Marquis Who's Who
Marquis Who's Who. (2015). Profile Detail - Lou Anna Kimsey Simon. Marquis Biographies Online. Retrieved from Marquis Whos Who database.
Mergent. (2009). Ford Motor Co. suppliers. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from Mergent Horizon database.
Mergent. (2009). Beverages: overview. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from Mergent Horizon database.
Mergent. (2005). Marathon Oil Corp. company details report. Retrieved February 14, 2006, from Mergent
Mergent. (2010). Hershey Chocolate Corporation. Moody's Analyses of Investments: Part II Industrial Investments, 1920. Retrieved
January 18, 2010, from Mergent WebReports database.
Mergent. (2010). The Hershey Company. Mergent Industrial Manual 2008, Vol. 1. Retrieved January 18, 2010, from Mergent WebReports
Mintel GNPD Academic
Scotsburn Dairy Group. (2015) Organic Fudge Bars. Retrieved from Mintel GNPD Academic database.
Mintel. (2006). Hair styling products - US - May 2006. Retrieved from Mintel Market
Research Reports database.
NewspaperDirect Press Display
Note: cite from newspaper source.
Simmons OneView (previously Choices3)
Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2007). Simmons Choices3 (Spring, 2007) [Computer software].
New York: Simmons Market Research Bureau.
Bureau van Dijk Electronic Publishing. (2009). Company Report: BASF SE. Retrieved from Orbis database.
Panjiva. (2015). Nissin Corporation - Japan. Supplier, Manufacturer: automobile parts. Retrieved from Panjiva database.
PIERS Directory of U.S. Importers/Exporters
UBM Global Trade. (2011.)
Plunkett Research Online
Plunkett Research Ltd. (2009, September 18). Introduction to the Travel Industry. Airlines, Hotels & Travel Industry.
Retrieved January 10, 2010, from Plunkett Research Online database.
Political Risk Yearbook
PRS Group, Inc. (2007). Algeria. In Political risk yearbook. Retrieved January 30, 2008, from
ProQuest Historical Annual Reports
Ford Motor Company Annual Report -- 1912. (1912). America's Corporate Foundation. Retrieved
January 8, 2007, from ProQuest Historical Annual Reports database.
infoUSA, Inc. (2007). Hershey Company. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from ReferenceUSA database.
Stuit, M. & Wartmann, H. (2012). Discovery and analysis of e-mail-driven business processes. Information Systems 37(2), 142-168. Retrieved from Science Direct database.
Simmons OneView (previously Choices3)
Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2007). Simmons OneView (Spring, 2008) [Computer software].
New York: Simmons Market Research Bureau.
Geographic Research, Inc. (2008). MRI Consumer Survey Data 2006.
Retrieved from SimplyMap database.
Geographic Research, Inc. (2008). Census 2000 Data. Retrieved
from SimplyMap database.
Geographic Research, Inc. (2008). Map. Retrieved
from SimplyMap database.
OECD. (2006). Ageing societies. OECD Factbook 2006. Retrieved from
OECD. (2006). Ireland. Economic Outlook, 2006/9, 156. Retrieved from
Sports Business Research Network
Sports Business Research Network. (2007). Statistics retrieved August 24, 2007, from Sports Business
Research Network (SBRnet) database.
Sports Business Research Network. (2004, June 21). Fifth bowl game for college football. SportsPipe.
Retrieved from Sports Business Research Network (SBRnet) database.
BPI Communications, Inc. (2006, June). Colas, energy drinks swing for fences. Brandweek,
47(25), S30. Retrieved from TableBase database.
Vault Career Insider
Rishi, K. (n.d.). A day in the life: Associate, corporate strategy. Retrieved from Vault Career Insider database.
World Bank E-Library
Klapper, L.F. & Parker, S.C. (2010). Gender and the business environment for new firm creation. The World Bank Research Observer 26(2). Retrieved from World Bank E-Library.
World Development Indicators
World Bank. (2006). Statistics retrieved from World Development Indicators