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Citing Business Databases in APA Style: Citing Business Databases - APA Examples

Authoritative Guide: APA Manual

For more  information check the guide, below, in our Reference shelf.  Another option is the popular APA guide from  the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL).

(Whenever you 'borrow' article quotes, paraphrases, reports, and data, from other researchers/databases, you need to cite the material in order to (1) abide by U.S. copyright law, and, (2) allow your reader a path to the material in its original composition.)


While the APA provides instructions for citing standard publication types, some business resources have unique elements that make it necessary for us to make some adaptations. Check with your instructor for any requirements.

Citing Business Databases in APA Style

APA Examples

ABI/INFORM Complete (Dateline, Global, and Trade & Industry)

Surchi, M. (2011). The temporary store: A new marketing tool for fashion brands. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 15(2), 257-270. doi:


MPA — the Association of Magazine Media, Kantar Media. (2010). Honda: Media mix 2009. Retrieved from Ad$pender database. 

Ad $ Summary

Ad $ summary multi-media service, January-December 2008. (2008). New York, NY: Magazine Publishers of America, Inc.


Element 79. (n.d.) Frito Lay: Baby steps. Retrieved from AdForum database.

Advertising Red Books

Advertising Red Books. (2006). Energizer Holdings, Inc. profile. Retrieved from Advertising Red Books database.

Applied Science and Business Periodicals Retrospective Index

Severiens, J. (1982). Foreign buyers of US firms: their performance records. Mergers & Acquisitions, 16, 47-51. Retrieved from Applied Sci & Business Retro database.

Associations Unlimited

Gale. (2015). Polish Falcons of America - Nest 652. Retrieved from Associations Unlimited.

Automotive News Data Center

Automotive News Data Center (2012). U.S. light-vehicle sales by nameplate, Aug. & YTD. Retrieved from Automotive News Data Center database.


BizMiner. (2011, December). Industry financial report (5 year); [3254] Sector: Manufacturing; sales class: $250- $499.99m. Retrieved from the BizMiner database.


Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.

BMI Research

Business Monitor International. (2015). Industry Trend Analysis - Healthcare Costs Poised For An Increase. [United States: Pharmaceuticals & Health care]. Retrieved from BMI Research database.

BNA Labor and Employment Law Resource Center

U.S. Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit (1985). MERWINE v. BD. OF TRUSTEES, 37 FEP Cases 340. Retrieved from Bloomberg BNA     Labor and Employment Law Resource Center.

BNA Tax and Accounting Center

The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. (2010). U.S. income portfolios compensation planning: Portfolio 358-3rd, cash or deferred arrangements. Retrieved from BNA Tax and Accounting Center.

Brands and Their Companies

Gale Group. (2010). Cadbury creme eggs.   Brands and Their Companies. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database.

Business Abstracts with Full Text

Cendrowski, S. (2012). Nike's New Marketing Mojo. Fortune, 165(3), 80-88.     

Business Book Summaries

(Note: Cite from the book, not Business Book Summaries database.)


Synergos Technologies, Inc.(2015). Local Sewing Something. Landscape Report. Retrieved from Business Decision database.

Business Insights: Essentials

Gale Group. (2012). Other Snack Food Manufacturing [industry profile]. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

Gale Group. (2012). Hilton Worldwide. [company profile]. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

" Launches as the Premier Destination for High Quality Twitter Headers." (2012, October 1). PRWeb Newswire. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

Business Rankings Annual

Gale Group. (2010). World's largest candy companies, 2008. Business Rankings Annual. Retrieved from
Gale Directory Library database.

Business Source Complete

Laird, K. (2008). Missing: Statue of Liberty. Marketing Magazine, 113(8), 8. 

Datamonitor. (2011). Hilton Worldwide [company profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Datamonitor. (2011). Hotels & Motels [industry profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

CAB Abstracts

McFadden, D. T., Umberger, W., & Wilson, J. (2009). Growing a niche market: A targeted marketing plan for Colorado Homestead
     Ranches. Review of Agricultural Economics, 31(4), 984-998.

CCH Internet Tax Research NetWork

Mombrun, R. (2006, September 1). Let's protect our economy and democracy: The case for keeping the estate tax. The Tax Magazine,
     84(9). Retrieved from CCH Internet Tax Research NetWork database.

China Data Online

All China Marketing Research.(2001-2004) Casting Machinery(Basic Condition). China Monthly Industrial Data 1999-2002(Economy Index). Retrieved from China Data Online.

Communication & Mass Media Complete

Johnson, B. (2010). Ad spending is on the rise, but growth rate may slow. Advertising Age, 81(45), 8-14.

Conference Board

The Conference Board Inc. (2010). Top executive compensation in 2008. Retrieved from The Conference Board Research Online
      Collection database.

Liberman, V. (2009). Clicking with customers. The Conference Board Review, May/June 2009. Retrieved from The Conference Board
     Research Online Collection database.

Consultants & Consulting Organizations Directory

Geesemen, P. (2015). Hoysler Associates Inc. Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory. 40 ed. vol.7 p.2439. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database..

Corporate Affiliations (2006). Dell, Inc. profile. Retrieved June 25, 2006, from Corporate Affiliations database.

Deals (via ThomsonONE)

Thomson Reuters. (2010). Company Overview: AT&T Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from Thomson ONE database.

DemographicsNow Library Edition

Alteryx Inc. (2015). Demographic Snapshot Comparison, Geography: City - New Orleans, City - Detroit, City - East Lansing. Retrieved from DemographicsNow Library Edition database.


Kurov, A. (2010). Investor sentiment and the stock market's reaction to monetary policy. Journal of Banking and Finance, 34(1), 139-49.
     Retrieved from EconLit database.

Economist Intelligence Unit

The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. (2001, November). Pakistan country report. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.


Peart, M., Bendtsen, C. (2015). US Time Spent With Media: eMarketer's Updated Estimates for Fall 2015. Report. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

EMIS Professional

EMIS. (2013, July 20). Hotel listings. China Daily. Retrieved from EMIS Professional database.

Encyclopedia of American Industries

Gale. (2005). SIC 2024 Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts. Encyclopedia of American Industries, Vol. 1:
     Manufacturing Industries
. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database.

Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns

 Gale. (2007). Burger King Corp. Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 2. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library

Entrepreneurship (via ProQuest)

Parsons, A.G. (2009). Use of scent in a naturally odourless store. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 37(5)440-452. Retrieved from ProQuest Entrepreneurship database.   

E-Reference Books and Directories

Cite the actual book or directory, formatted like a print citation for that type of work.

eStatement Studies

The Risk Management Association (2010). 326160 - Plastics bottle manufacturing 2009/2010. Retrieved from eStatement Studies database.

Europa World

Routledge. (2015). Instituto Nacional de Administracion Publica (INAP) (Guatemala). Retrieved from Europa World online.


Hudson, K. (2006, September 28). Wal-Mart to trim options for health coverage. The Wall Street Journal, p. B2.
     Retrieved from Factiva database.

FASB Codification

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). (2010). Accounting standards codification TM. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Retrieved from

Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies (FAITS)

Gitomer, J. (2006). Wi-Fi market trends. Retrieved from Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies database.

Freedonia Focus

Freedonia Focus. (2010, May). Freedonia focus on biotechnology: Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved from Freedonia Focus database.

Frost & Sullivan

Mendelson, J. (2015). Electro-Optical/Infrared Systems - Technology Trends Impacting Military and Aerospace Sectors (TechVision). Technical Insights Reports. Retrieved from Frost & Sullivan database.

Gale Virtual Reference Library

Note: Cite the actual book or encyclopedia, formatted like a print citation for that type of work.


Lopez, J. & Raskino, M. (2006). What information will executives need in 2012? Retrieved from Gartner database.

Baker, V. L., Weiner A., McGuire, M., Koslowski, T., Brancheau, J., & Reali, P. A., et al. (2006). Hype cycle
     for consumer technologies, 2006
. Retrieved from Gartner database.

Kitagawa, M. & Gammage, B. (2006). Magic quadrant for global enterprise notebook PCs, 2H06. Retrieved
     from Gartner database.

General BusinessFile ASAP

Kiviat, B. (2006, December 18). The big gulp at Starbucks. Time, 168, 124. Retrieved
     from General BusinessFile ASAP database.

Garcia, B. (2006, December 14). Starbucks Coffee launches 'Black Apron Exclusives'. Kuwait Times, pNA.
     Retrieved from General BusinessFile ASAP database.


MSU-CIBER globalEDGE. (2007). Country insights: Ireland. Retrieved November 13, 2007, from


GuideStar Premium

GuideStar USA, Inc. (2011). Ele's Place, Inc. mission statement. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from GuideStar Premium database.


Obama, B. (2015). Administration of Barack Obama, 2015 Notice - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran. Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, 1. Retrieved from HeinOnLine database.

Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition

Hall, P. D., & Burke, C. B., (2006) Nonprofit, Voluntary, and Religious Entities. Historical Statistics of the United States. Millennial Edition Online.

Hospitality & Tourism Complete

Lockyer, S.E. (2004). P.F. Chang's makes accounting changes, takes $11.5M charge. Nation's Restaurant
     News, 38
(13), 11. Retrieved from Hospitality & Tourism Complete database.

Human Resources Library

Bloomberg BNA. (2015). HR Policy Handbook. Performance Appraisal, Training and Productivity. HR and Payroll Resource Center. Retrieved from Human Resources Library database.


IBISWorld. (2007, November). Casino hotels in the US. Retrieved December 12, 2007, from
     IBIS Industry Market Research database.

International Country Risk Guide

The PRS Group, Inc. (2009, September 1).  Libya country analysis. The PRS Group/International Country Risk Guide. Retrieved from
     LexisNexis Academic database.

International Financial Statistics Online

International Monetary Fund. (2010, January). Australia country tables. Retrieved January 18, 2009, from International Financial Statistics Online database.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Data Archive

Note: instructions for citing data from this database is available from the database at

Investext Current Reports

Datamonitor. (2009). Target corporation company profile. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Investext Current Reports database.


Goodman, J. P., & Sandberg, W. R.. (1981). A Contingency Approach to Labor Relations Strategies. The Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 145–154. Retrieved from

LexisNexis Academic


Woodyard, C. (2006, December 27). Car-stereo units put video iPods on the road. USA Today, p. 3B.
     Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.

Hoover's. (2007, January 2). Johnson & Johnson. Hoover's Company Records - In-depth Records.
     Retrieved March 14, 2007, from LexisNexis Academic database.

MarketLine Advantage

MarketLine. (2012, June 28). Hilton Worldwide. [company profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.

MarketLine. (2011, November 2). United States - Hotels & Motels. [industry profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.

Market Share Reporter

Gale. (2010). Consumer electronics sales, 2008. Market Share Reporter. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database.

Marquis Who's Who

Marquis Who's Who. (2015). Profile Detail - Lou Anna Kimsey Simon. Marquis Biographies Online. Retrieved from Marquis Whos Who database.

Mergent Horizon

Mergent. (2009). Ford Motor Co. suppliers. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from Mergent Horizon database.

Mergent. (2009). Beverages: overview. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from Mergent Horizon database.

Mergent Online

Mergent. (2005). Marathon Oil Corp. company details report. Retrieved February 14, 2006, from Mergent
     Online database.

Mergent WebReports

Mergent. (2010). Hershey Chocolate Corporation. Moody's Analyses of Investments: Part II Industrial Investments, 1920. Retrieved
     January 18, 2010, from Mergent WebReports database.

Mergent. (2010). The Hershey Company. Mergent Industrial Manual 2008, Vol. 1. Retrieved January 18, 2010, from Mergent WebReports

Mintel Reports

Mintel. (2006). Hair styling products - US - May 2006. Retrieved from Mintel Market
     Research Reports database.


Simmons OneView (previously Choices3)

Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2007). Simmons Choices3 (Spring, 2007) [Computer software].
     New York: Simmons Market Research Bureau.


Bureau van Dijk Electronic Publishing. (2009). Company Report: BASF SE.  Retrieved from Orbis database.

PIERS Directory of U.S. Importers/Exporters

UBM Global Trade. (2011.) Directory of U.S. importers & exporters- blueberries.  Retrieved from Piers Directory of U.S. Importers/Exporters database.

Plunkett Research Online

Plunkett Research Ltd. (2009, September 18). Introduction to the Travel Industry. Airlines, Hotels & Travel Industry.
     Retrieved January 10, 2010, from Plunkett Research Online database.

Political Risk Yearbook

PRS Group, Inc. (2007). Algeria. In Political risk yearbook. Retrieved January 30, 2008, from

ProQuest Historical Annual Reports

Ford Motor Company Annual Report -- 1912. (1912). America's Corporate Foundation. Retrieved
     January 8, 2007, from ProQuest Historical Annual Reports database.


infoUSA, Inc. (2007). Hershey Company. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from ReferenceUSA database.

Science Direct

Stuit, M. & Wartmann, H. (2012). Discovery and analysis of e-mail-driven business processes. Information Systems 37(2), 142-168. Retrieved from Science Direct database.

Simmons OneView (previously Choices3)

Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2007). Simmons OneView (Spring, 2008) [Computer software].
     New York: Simmons Market Research Bureau.


Geographic Research, Inc. (2008). MRI Consumer Survey Data 2006.

     Retrieved from SimplyMap database.

Geographic Research, Inc. (2008). Census 2000 Data. Retrieved

     from SimplyMap database.

Geographic Research, Inc. (2008). Map. Retrieved

     from SimplyMap database.


OECD. (2006). Ageing societies. OECD Factbook 2006. Retrieved from
     SourceOECD database.

OECD. (2006). Ireland. Economic Outlook, 2006/9, 156. Retrieved from
     SourceOECD database.

Sports Business Research Network

Sports Business Research Network. (2007). Statistics retrieved August 24, 2007, from Sports Business
     Research Network (SBRnet) database.

Sports Business Research Network. (2004, June 21). Fifth bowl game for college football. SportsPipe.
     Retrieved from Sports Business Research Network (SBRnet) database.


BPI Communications, Inc. (2006, June). Colas, energy drinks swing for fences. Brandweek,
(25), S30. Retrieved from TableBase database.

Vault Career Insider

Rishi, K. (n.d.). A day in the life: Associate, corporate strategy. Retrieved from Vault Career Insider database.

World Bank E-Library

Klapper, L.F. & Parker, S.C. (2010). Gender and the business environment for new firm creation. The World Bank Research Observer  26(2). Retrieved from World Bank E-Library.

World Development Indicators

World Bank. (2006). Statistics retrieved from World Development Indicators

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