If you're starting with a general topic or concept and want to get an idea of how it has been or is being discussed in philosophy or science and technology studies, these reference sources are good places to start. In all of these sources, pay attention to the bibliographies! You can pick out a couple of articles that seem related to your topic and then see who they cite, and who cites those articles, if they're older ones.
Encyclopedias, textbooks, dictionaries and handbooks are also great places to start, and they can help you understand the terminology in the scientific literature if it's unfamiliar to you. Here are some that may be useful.
Here are some more subject specific resources that can also be used for background. Those with links are ebooks, and those with call numbers are physical books. You will have to go to the library physically to read or borrow the physical books.