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Citing Business Databases in APA Style: Citing Business Databases - APA Examples

Authoritative Guide: APA Manual

Curious about APA citation style? Want to check your citations or other APA formatting requirements, The APA guide, below, is available in the Gast Business Library, on our Reference shelf.

Other, excellent, online resources include the Purdue OWL's APA Formatting guide and the APA Style Blog, both are linked below, check them out!


While the APA provides instructions for citing standard publication types, some business resources have unique elements that make it necessary for us to make some adaptations. Check with your instructor for any requirements.

Citing Business Databases in APA Style

APA Examples

ABI/INFORM Complete (Dateline, Global, and Trade & Industry)

Surchi, M. (2011). The temporary store: A new marketing tool for fashion brands. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 15(2), 257-270. doi:


MPA — the Association of Magazine Media, Kantar Media. (2010). Honda: Media mix 2009. Retrieved from Ad$pender database.


Element 79. (n.d.) Frito Lay: Baby steps. Retrieved from AdForum database.

Advertising Redbooks

Advertising Red Books. (2006). Energizer Holdings, Inc. profile. Retrieved from Advertising Red Books database.

Applied Science and Business Periodicals Retrospective Index

Severiens, J. (1982). Foreign buyers of US firms: their performance records. Mergers & Acquisitions, 16, 47-51. Retrieved from Applied Sci & Business Retro database.

Automotive News Data Center

Automotive News Data Center (2012). U.S. light-vehicle sales by nameplate, Aug. & YTD. Retrieved from Automotive News Data Center database.

BCC Research

Kumar, A. (2020, January). Probiotics in food, beverages, dietary supplements, and animal feed. Retrieved from BCC Research database.


BizMiner. (2011, December). Industry financial report (5 year); [3254] Sector: Manufacturing; sales class: $250- $499.99m. Retrieved from the BizMiner database.


Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.

BMI Research

Business Monitor International. (2015). Industry Trend Analysis - Healthcare Costs Poised For An Increase. [United States: Pharmaceuticals & Health care]. Retrieved from BMI Research database.

BNA Labor and Employment Law Resource Center

U.S. Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit (1985). MERWINE v. BD. OF TRUSTEES, 37 FEP Cases 340. Retrieved from Bloomberg BNA Labor and Employment Law Resource Center.

BNA Tax and Accounting Center

The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. (2010). U.S. income portfolios compensation planning: Portfolio 358-3rd, cash or deferred arrangements. Retrieved from BNA Tax and Accounting Center.

Brands and Their Companies

Gale Group. (2010). Cadbury creme eggs.   Brands and Their Companies. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database.

Business Abstracts with Full Text

Cendrowski, S. (2012). Nike's New Marketing Mojo. Fortune, 165(3), 80-88.

Business Book Summaries

(Note: Cite from the book, not Business Book Summaries database.)


Synergos Technologies, Inc.(2015). Local Sewing Something. Landscape Report. Retrieved from Business Decision database.

Business Education in Video

Dignan, D. (Producer). (1999). Paxman  meets Bill Gates [Video file]. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from Business Education in Video database.

Business Insights: Global

Gale Group. (2012). Other Snack Food Manufacturing [industry profile]. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

Gale Group. (2012). Hilton Worldwide. [company profile]. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

" Launches as the Premier Destination for High Quality Twitter Headers." (2012, October 1). PRWeb Newswire. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Business Insights: Essentials database.

Business Rankings Annual

Gale Group. (2010). World's largest candy companies, 2008. Business Rankings Annual. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database.

Business Source Complete

Laird, K. (2008). Missing: Statue of Liberty. Marketing Magazine, 113(8), 8. 

Datamonitor. (2011). Hilton Worldwide [company profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Datamonitor. (2011). Hotels & Motels [industry profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

CAB Abstracts

McFadden, D. T., Umberger, W., & Wilson, J. (2009). Growing a niche market: A targeted marketing plan for Colorado Homestead Ranches. Review of Agricultural Economics, 31(4), 984-998.

CB Insights

CB Insights.(2015, February, 17) Samsonite. Investors Profile. Retrieved from CB Insights database.

China Data Online

All China Marketing Research.(2001-2004) Casting Machinery(Basic Condition). China Monthly Industrial Data 1999-2002 (Economy Index). Retrieved from China Data Online.

Communication & Mass Media Complete

Johnson, B. (2010). Ad spending is on the rise, but growth rate may slow. Advertising Age, 81(45), 8-14.

Conference Board

The Conference Board Inc. (2010). Top executive compensation in 2008. Retrieved from The Conference Board Research Online Collection database.

Liberman, V. (2009). Clicking with customers. The Conference Board Review, May/June 2009. Retrieved from The Conference Board  Research Online Collection database.

Consultants & Consulting Organizations Directory

Geesemen, P. (2015). Hoysler Associates Inc. Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory. 40 ed. vol.7 p.2439. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database..

Corporate Affiliations (2006). Dell, Inc. profile. Retrieved June 25, 2006, from Corporate Affiliations database.

Deals (via ThomsonONE)

Thomson Reuters. (2010). Company Overview: AT&T Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from Thomson ONE database.

DemographicsNow Library Edition

Alteryx Inc. (2015). Demographic Snapshot Comparison, Geography: City - New Orleans, City - Detroit, City - East Lansing. Retrieved from DemographicsNow Library Edition database.


Kurov, A. (2010). Investor sentiment and the stock market's reaction to monetary policy. Journal of Banking and Finance, 34(1), 139-49. Retrieved from EconLit database.

Economist Intelligence Unit

The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. (2001, November). Pakistan country report. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.


Peart, M., Bendtsen, C. (2015). US Time Spent With Media: eMarketer's Updated Estimates for Fall 2015. Report. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

EMIS Professional

EMIS. (2013, July 20). Hotel listings. China Daily. Retrieved from EMIS Professional database.

Encyclopedia of American Industries

Gale. (2005). SIC 2024 Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts. Encyclopedia of American Industries, Vol. 1: Manufacturing Industries. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database.

Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns

 Gale. (2007). Burger King Corp. Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 2. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database.

E-Reference Books and Directories

Cite the actual book or directory, formatted like a print citation for that type of work.

eStatement Studies

The Risk Management Association (2010). 326160 - Plastics bottle manufacturing 2009/2010. Retrieved from eStatement Studies database.

Europa World

Routledge. (2015). Instituto Nacional de Administracion Publica (INAP) (Guatemala). Retrieved from Europa World online.


Hudson, K. (2006, September 28). Wal-Mart to trim options for health coverage. The Wall Street Journal, p. B2. Retrieved from Factiva database.

Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies (FAITS)

Gitomer, J. (2006). Wi-Fi market trends. Retrieved from Faulkner Advisory for IT Studies database.

The Food Institute

The Food Institute. (2016, Oct. 24). The Food Institute Report. Retrieved from The Food Institute database.

Freedonia Focus

Freedonia Focus. (2010, May). Freedonia focus on biotechnology: Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved from Freedonia Focus database.

Frost & Sullivan

Mendelson, J. (2015). Electro-Optical/Infrared Systems - Technology Trends Impacting Military and Aerospace Sectors (TechVision). Technical Insights Reports. Retrieved from Frost & Sullivan database.

Gale Virtual Reference Library

Note: Cite the actual book or encyclopedia, formatted like a print citation for that type of work.


Lopez, J. & Raskino, M. (2006). What information will executives need in 2012? Retrieved from Gartner database.

Baker, V. L., Weiner A., McGuire, M., Koslowski, T., Brancheau, J., & Reali, P. A., et al. (2006). Hype cycle for consumer technologies, 2006. Retrieved from Gartner database.

Kitagawa, M. & Gammage, B. (2006). Magic quadrant for global enterprise notebook PCs, 2H06. Retrieved from Gartner database.

General BusinessFile ASAP

Kiviat, B. (2006, December 18). The big gulp at Starbucks. Time, 168, 124. Retrieved from General BusinessFile ASAP database.

Garcia, B. (2006, December 14). Starbucks Coffee launches 'Black Apron Exclusives'. Kuwait Times, pNA. Retrieved from General BusinessFile ASAP database.


MSU-CIBER globalEDGE. (2007). Country insights: Ireland. Retrieved November 13, 2007, from


Michigan State University. (2016). Argentina industry and employment trends: Salaries. Retrieved from Goinglobal Database.

GuideStar Premium

GuideStar USA, Inc. (2011). Ele's Place, Inc. mission statement. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from GuideStar Premium database.


Obama, B. (2015). Administration of Barack Obama, 2015 Notice - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran. Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, 1. Retrieved from HeinOnLine database.

Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition

Hall, P. D., & Burke, C. B., (2006) Nonprofit, Voluntary, and Religious Entities. Historical Statistics of the United States. Millennial Edition Online.

Hospitality & Tourism Complete

Lockyer, S.E. (2004). P.F. Chang's makes accounting changes, takes $11.5M charge. Nation's Restaurant News, 38(13), 11. Retrieved from Hospitality & Tourism Complete database.

Human Resources Library

Bloomberg BNA. (2015). HR Policy Handbook. Performance Appraisal, Training and Productivity. HR and Payroll Resource Center. Retrieved from Human Resources Library database.


Alvarez, A. (2015, August). Hotels & Motels in the US. IBISWorld Industry Report 72111. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

International Country Risk Guide

The PRS Group, Inc. (2009, September 1).  Libya country analysis. The PRS Group/International Country Risk Guide. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.

International Directory of Company Histories

Herzog, C. (2017). Amblin Partners LLC. In T. Grant (Ed.), International Directory of Company Histories (Vol. 183, pp. 9-12). Farmington Hills, MI: St. James Press. Retrieved from International Directory of Company Histories database.

International Financial Statistics Online

International Monetary Fund. (2010, January). Australia country tables. Retrieved January 18, 2009, from International Financial Statistics Online database.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Data Archive

Note: instructions for citing data from this database is available from the database at

Investext Current Reports

Datamonitor. (2009). Target corporation company profile. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Investext Current Reports database.


Goodman, J. P., & Sandberg, W. R.. (1981). A Contingency Approach to Labor Relations Strategies. The Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 145–154. Retrieved from

Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands

Morison, T. (2016). South Korea: Protocol. In Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands. Retrieved from Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands database.

LexisNexis Academic

Woodyard, C. (2006, December 27). Car-stereo units put video iPods on the road. USA Today, p. 3B. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.

Hoover's. (2007, January 2). Johnson & Johnson. Hoover's Company Records - In-depth Records. Retrieved March 14, 2007, from LexisNexis Academic database.

MarketLine Advantage

MarketLine. (2012, June 28). Hilton Worldwide. [company profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.

MarketLine. (2011, November 2). United States - Hotels & Motels. [industry profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.

Market Share Reporter

Gale. (2010). Consumer electronics sales, 2008. Market Share Reporter. Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database.

Marquis Who's Who

Marquis Who's Who. (2015). Profile detail - Lou Anna Kimsey Simon. Marquis Biographies Online. Retrieved from Marquis Whos Who database.

Mergent First Research

Mergent. (2016). Aquaculture: Critical issues. Retrieved October 25, 2016 from Mergent First Research Database.

Mergent Horizon

Mergent. (2009). Ford Motor Co. suppliers. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from Mergent Horizon database.

Mergent. (2009). Beverages: overview. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from Mergent Horizon database.

Mergent Intellect

Mergent. (2016). Stryker Corporation: Financial details - income statement. Retrieved October 25, 2016 from Mergent Intellect database.

Mergent Online

Mergent. (2005). Marathon Oil Corp. company details report. Retrieved February 14, 2006, from Mergent Online database.

Mergent WebReports

Mergent. (2010). Hershey Chocolate Corporation. Moody's Analyses of Investments: Part II Industrial Investments, 1920. Retrieved January 18, 2010, from Mergent WebReports database.

Mergent. (2010). The Hershey Company. Mergent Industrial Manual 2008, Vol. 1. Retrieved January 18, 2010, from Mergent WebReports database.

Mintel Academic Reports

Mintel. (2006). Hair styling products - US - May 2006. Retrieved from Mintel Academic Reports database.

Mintel GNPD

Scotsburn Dairy Group. (2015) Organic Fudge Bars. Retrieved from Mintel GNPD Academic database.


Panjiva. (2015). Nissin Corporation - Japan. Supplier, Manufacturer: automobile parts. Retrieved from Panjiva database.


Euromonitor International. (2016). Car rental in the United Kingdom. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.


Fcc Broadband Deployment Data. Availability of residential fiber to the end user (fiber optic) internet access in 2015. PolicyMap. <> 29 September 2016.

Political Risk Yearbook

PRS Group, Inc. (2007). Algeria. In Political risk yearbook. Retrieved January 30, 2008, from

Press Reader

Note: Cite the actual book or encyclopedia, formatted like a print citation for that type of work.


PrivCo. (2016). LivingSocial, Inc.. Retrieved from PrivCo database.

ProQuest Historical Annual Reports

Ford Motor Company Annual Report -- 1912. (1912). America's Corporate Foundation. Retrieved January 8, 2007, from ProQuest Historical Annual Reports database.

ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S.

Bureau of Census (2016). Resident Population Projections And Components Of Change: 2015 To 2060 [As Of July 1] ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S. 2016 Online Edition. Retrieved from ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S. database.

ProQuest Statistical Insight

Government Accountability Office. (2012). Medicare: High-expenditure part b drugs. (GAO Publication No. 13-46R). Retrieved from ProQuest Statistical Insight database.


Al Saifi, S. A. (2015). Positioning organisational culture in knowledge management research. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(2), 164-189. Retrieved from PsycInfo database.


infoUSA, Inc. (2007). Hershey Company. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from ReferenceUSA database.

RIA Checkpoint

RIA. (2009). 2010 RIA federal tax handbook. Retrieved from RIA Checkpoint database.

Murthy, V. (2008, January/February). Why paying severance has become like walking a tax law minefield. Journal of Corporate Taxation, 2008, 40-44. Retrieved from RIA Checkpoint database.

Roper Center for Public Opinion Research

Social Surveys (Gallup Poll) Limited. (1991). British Gallup Poll: CQ 121B, May, 1991 [dataset]. GBSSLT91-CQ121B. Social Surveys (Gallup Poll) Limited [producer]. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, RoperExpress [distributor]. Retrieved from Roper Center for Public Opinion Research database.

Sage Business Cases

Chaston, I., (2009). A flawed succession. In SAGE Business Cases. 2016. 10.4135/9781473938700

Simmons OneView (previously Choices3)

Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2007). Simmons OneView (Spring, 2008) [Computer software]. New York: Simmons Market Research Bureau.


SimplyAnalytics (2017). EASI/MRI Consumer Expenditure Data 2016. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

SimplyAnalytics (2017). Census 2016 Current Estimates Data. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyMap database.

Note: If you are not sure of the name and date of the variable you are using, you can View Metadata.

Sports Business Research Network

Sports Business Research Network. (2007). Statistics retrieved August 24, 2007, from Sports Business Research Network (SBRnet) database.

Sports Business Research Network. (2004, June 21). Fifth bowl game for college football. SportsPipe. Retrieved from Sports Business Research Network (SBRnet) database.


Better Homes and Gardens Magazine Profile. (2014). Consumer Magazine Media, Retrieved from SRDS Media Planning Platform database.


Nielsen Scarborough. (n.d.) Watching sports: Number of people who watched a National Hockey League event on a cable TV within the last 12 months in the United States (USA) from spring 2008 to spring 2015 (in millions). In Statista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieved October 7, 2016, from


Google, Inc. (2009, December 31). Annual report. Retrieved from ThomsonONE database.

Milunovich, S. & Christiansen, P. (2015, May 1). Apple Inc.: Evidence lab Apple Watch monitor continues to show tepid interest; reducing watch estimates. UBS Global Research. Retrieved from ThomsonONE database.

Trade Shows Worldwide

ABA and ACB National Consumer Credit Conference (2013). In Trade Shows Worldwide Directory. Retrieved from

UN Comtrade

United Nations Statistical Division. (2010). Data retrieved February 10, 2010 from

USA Trade Online

U.S. Census Bureau: Economic Indicators Division. (2016). Country by commodity - exports: Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc. U.S. Import and Export Merchandise trade statistics. Retrieved from USA Trade Online database.

Vault Career Insider

Rishi, K. (n.d.). A day in the life: Associate, corporate strategy. Retrieved from Vault Career Insider database.


Harman, A. (2016, Oct. 21). No incentives for hybrids, Thailand says. WardsAuto. Retrieved from WardsAuto database.

Ward's Business Directory

Kroger, Co. (2014). In Ward's Business Directory. Retrieved from 

Web of Science

Bishop, S. & Waring, J. (2016). Becoming hybrid: The negotiated order on the front line of public private partnerships. Human Relations, 69(10), 1937-1958. 10.1177/0018726716630389

Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS)


Compustat Industrial [Annual Data]. (Years). Available: Standard & Poor's/Compustat [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Services.


CRSP Stocks. (Years). Available: Center for Research in Security Prices. Graduate School of Business. University of Chicago [access date]. Retrieved from Wharton Research Data Services.

World Bank E-Library

Klapper, L.F. & Parker, S.C. (2010). Gender and the business environment for new firm creation. The World Bank Research Observer  26(2). Retrieved from World Bank E-Library.

World Bank Databank

The World Bank, World Development Indicators. (2012). GNI per capita, Atlas method [data file]. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank,org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

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Did You Know?

Whenever you 'borrow' article quotes, paraphrases, reports, and data, from other researchers/databases, you need to cite the material in order to (1) abide by U.S. copyright law, and, (2) allow your reader a path to the material in its original composition.

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