A collection of recommended web sites. Last reviewed August 30, 2017.
ABZU : Abzu is a guide to networked open access data relevant to the study and public presentation of the Ancient Near East and the Ancient Mediterranean world. Abzu has been available on the Internet since 5 October, 1994.
Actium : How the Battle of Actium Changed the World. Article by Heather Whipps, LiveScience, March 23, 2008.
Alexander the Great : Who was Alexander? What did he look like? Do any of his own writings survive? Although many of his generals lived to be old men, why did he die at such a young age? Do we have facts, or merely legends, about him? Turns out, "the greatest legend of all was real." Courtesy of Carole D. Bos and AwesomeStories.com
Alexander the Great. A compilation of articles by Jona Lendering, a subset of Livius : Articles on Ancient History.
Alexander the Great. Courtesy of John J. Popovich. Heavily illustrated.
All about Alexander the Great (Porthos.org) Welcome to pothos.org. In 1994, this became the first web site dedicated to Alexander the Great - arguably the most famous secular person in history. The site has grown over the years and is maintained by a team of enthusiasts. The forum is our tour de force - a place where people can discuss Alexander, and argue about aspects of his life, career and death, at a level that suits them. Some of our forum members are beginners, people who are just starting out on their studies of Alexander; others are academics who might or might not specialise in Alexander studies. Whatever your level of interest and knowledge, you will find like-minded people who love to discuss and debate the life of Alexander the Great. Thomas William-Powlett.
Ambrosia : Union Catalogue of the Blegen and Gennadius Libraries of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the Libraries of the British School at Athens. Also includes new acquisitions list.
Ancient Greece : This interactive site from the British Museum provides a great deal of information, including segments on the Acropolis, Athens, war, Sparta, festivals, and daily life. The site includes artifacts owned by the British Museum.
AncientGreece.org : Courtesy of Thomas Sakoulas, a Professor and Chair of the Art Department at the State University of New York, at Oneonta.
Ancient Greek Architecture : Has an annoying advertisement at the top, but all the links seem to work.
Ancient Greek World : Welcome to the Ancient Greek World virtual gallery at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
Ancient History Encyclopedia is the global leader in ancient history content online, boasting the highest number of monthly visitors of any dedicated website…Our team of ten volunteers is passionate about history: We want to inspire our readers with the stories of the past, making history engaging and exciting. Here you’ll find high-quality articles, videos, interactive maps, and books on ancient history. All contributions are reviewed by expert volunteers who wish to share their knowledge. Ancient History Encyclopedia is entirely run by volunteers from all over the world. Our core team hails from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Argentina, Germany, and Italy. We’re always looking for people from all walks of life to join our team.”
Ancient Olympics. Online exhibit sponsored by the Perseus Project.
Ancient Origins. Reconstructing the origins of humanity's past. Covers more than Rome, Greece, etc. From the powerful civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Indus Valley, to the fearsome yet sophisticated society of the Vikings,
Ancient Roman Aqueducts via Romae Vitam (Everything Ancient Rome)
Ancient Rome essay from History.com
Ancient Rome Collection from HistoryWiz
Ancient Theater : Roman from TheaterHistory.com
Attalus : Greek and Roman history 322 - 44 B.C. This site contains detailed lists of events and sources for the history of the Hellenistic world and the Roman republic. It includes links to online translations of many of the sources, as well as new translations of some works which have not previously been easily available in English.
Attilla the Hun courtesy of Awesome Stories.
Augustus essay from History.com As the first Roman emperor (though he never claimed the title for himself), Augustus led Rome’s transformation from republic to empire during the tumultuous years following the assassination of his great-uncle and adoptive father Julius Caesar. He shrewdly combined military might, institution-building and lawmaking to become Rome’s sole ruler, laying the foundations of the 200-year Pax Romana (Roman Peace) and an empire that lasted, in various forms, for nearly 1,500 years.
BBC Ancient History Page. Covers Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
Bellum Cataline. Bellum Catilinae is a privately supported, non-judgmental listing of sites relating to the Classics. Each site has been inspected, and has something bearing directly on the world of ancient Greece and Rome.
Caligula essay via History.com The third of Rome’s emperors, Caligula (formally known as Gaius) achieved feats of waste and carnage during his four-year reign (A.D. 37-41) unmatched even by his infamous nephew Nero. The son of a great military leader, he escaped family intrigues to take the throne, but his personal and fiscal excesses led him to be the first Roman emperor to be assassinated.
Classical Greece : Provides nice summaries and wonderful pictures. Courtesy of Lloyd Sealy LIbrary, John Jay School of Criminal Justice, CUNY.
Classical Language Instruction Project : The site contains examples of Greek and Latin prose and poetry texts, read by various scholars and in different styles. It is designed to help students of the classical languages to acquaint themselves with the sound of Greek and Latin and to practice their reading skills.
Classics Library. Includes job posts for classics teachers.
The Classics Pages : You'll find well over 1000 pages of news, information, games and controversy about the life, literature, art and archaeology of the ancient world of Greece & Rome, and the latest on my Greek Harry Potter. Plus an award-winning bookshop!
Classical Rome : Nice summary with wonderful pictures. Courtesy of the Lloyd Sealy Library, John Jay School of Criminal Justice, CUNY.
Classics Studies Web : Classics Studies Web is designed to provide access to scholarly resources in Classics Studies. The geographical coverage includes the Mediterranean (particularly Greece and Rome) during the Classical and Hellenistic periods. The resources organized here have undergone a selection and evaluation process. If needed, annotations have been provided augmenting the research value of these resources to scholars. Courtesy of the ACRL, Western European Studies Section.
De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families : DIR is an on-line encyclopedia on the rulers of the Roman empire from Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to Constantine XI Palaeologus (1449-1453). The encyclopedia consists of (1) an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire's 1500 years, (2) a growing number of biographical essays on the individual emperors, (3) family trees ("stemmata") of important imperial dynasties, (4) an index of significant battles in the empire's history, (5) a growing number of capsule descriptions and maps of these battles, and (6) maps of the empire at different times. Wherever possible, these materials are cross-referenced by live links.
These contents are supplemented by an ancient and medieval atlas, a link to a virtual catalog of Roman coins, and other recommended links to related sites. The contents of DIR have been prepared by scholars but are meant to be accessible to non-specialists as well. They have been peer- reviewed for quality and accuracy before publication on this site.
Death on Display in the Ancient World: The particular 'deaths on display' in this web exhibit are three fictitious Roman grave groups, created from ancient artifacts in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan to illustrate death and burial in the Roman empire. They have been investigated and presented to the public by students enrolled in a first-year seminar at the university (Classical Civilization 120: Death on Display in the Ancient World).
Demos : Classical Athenian Democracy : Our goal is to build a digital encyclopedia of classical Athenian democracy that will be useful to a wide audience. We hope to describe the history, institutions, and people of democratic Athens in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, to publish the efforts of scholars to answer questions about Athenian democracy, and to invite you, our audience, to explore, discover, and judge for yourselves. A publication of The Stoa: a Consortium for Scholarly Publication in the Humanities and Tufts University.
Digital Scriptorium : a growing image database of medieval and renaissance manuscripts that unites scattered resources from many institutions into an international tool for teaching and scholarly research. It bridges the gap between a diverse user community and the limited resources of libraries by means of sample imaging and extensive rather than intensive cataloguing.
Diotima : Materials for the Study of Women and Gender in the Ancient World : Interdisciplinary research tool for issues of gender in the classical world. Searchable for on-line book reviews, articles, images, and related databases. Provides links to related on-line resources.
Duke University Papyrus Archive. The Duke Papyrus Archive provides electronic access to texts about and images of nearly 1400 papyri from ancient Egypt. The target audience includes: papyrologists, ancient historians, archaeologists, biblical scholars, classicists, Coptologists, Egyptologists, students of literature and religion and all others interested in ancient Egypt.
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World (EHW): An original electronic project aiming at collecting, recording, documenting, presenting and promoting the historical data that testify to the presence of Hellenic culture throughout time and space.
Encyclopedia Mythica : A free web reference resource that contains much information on most world religion history and folklore, as well as the histories of most wold mythologies. Entries all contain bibliographies to lead researchers to further materials. Check out the Greek and Roman mythology areas.
Encyclopedia Romana : James Grout
Etruscan Civilization courtesy of the Ancient History Encyclopedia.
Etruscan World courtesy of the Penn Museum at the University of Pennsylvania.
Expedition. Since 1958, Expedition has been published as the members' magazine of the Penn Museum. Here you can find a complete online archive of nearly 2,000 articles published in Expedition up to last year. Special issues focus on themes, current excavations, research projects, or upcoming exhibitions. To explore the Museum's other digital content, visit The Digital Penn Museum.
Forum Ancient Coins : Even if you don't wish to find out about the availability of ancient coins, you may want to take a peak at what they look like.
Greek and Roman Materials from the Perseus Digital Library : Primary and secondary sources for the study of ancient Greece and Rome.
Greek Architecture : 11 photos from the History Channel.
Hammurabi and His Code of Laws couresty of Awesome Stories.
Hannibal essay from History.com The son of a mighty Carthaginian warrior, Hannibal Barca will stop at nothing to wipe out the Roman Republic. Experts describe his global vision in this web exclusive.
Hatshepsut : She Ruled Egypt Long Before Cleopatra, and There's A reason You Haven't Heard of Her. Bobby Berman. Upworthy, January 8, 2015. The pharaohs of ancient Egypt were men. And then there was her.
He Has a Wife You Know. Interesting collection of odds and ends about ancient history.
Hellenica. A website (continuously updated and extended) with information (text and images) about Hellas / Greece and Cyprus, ancient, medieval and modern. You can also contribute with images and texts to this Hellenic World encyclopaedia
Hercules : Greece's Greatest Hero The most popular of Greek heroes, Hercules (sometimes called "Herakles") was celebrated in stories, sculptures, paintings, and even in the geography of the ancient world. What stories did the ancient Greeks tell about his life? What were the Labors of Hercules, anyway? Who were the women, both goddesses and mortals, in his life? And where in the ancient world did he travel on his adventures? Courtesy of the Perseus Digital Library sponsored by Tufts University.
History of the Ancient World. UNRV Roman Empire aims to give visitors a substantial look into what Rome was. We will delve into all aspects of its society and those of her neighbors, and perhaps share a greater understanding of our own world through that of the past.
History of the Later Roman Empire : "Generally acknowledged to be Professor John BagnallBury's masterpiece, this panoramic and painstakingly accurate reconstruction of the Western and Byzantine Roman Empire covers the period from 395 A.D., the death of Theodosius I, to 565 A.D., the death of Justinian. Quoting contemporary documents in full or in great extent, the author describes and analyzes the forces and cross-currents which controlled Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, the Persian and Teutonic regions; the rise of Byzantine power, territorial expansion, conflict of church and state, legislative and diplomatic changes; and scores of similar topics."
History.com currently offers (as of 2017) 43 ancient history topics including:
Humanities Research Network (HRN) : Provides a world-wide, online community for research in all areas of Humanities, including Classics.
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook : A companion project to the Medieval Sourcebook - for teachers of Ancient history civilization courses. It covers Pre-History, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel, Greece, and Rome.
LacusCurtius : Into the Roman World - A major site on Roman antiquity, including a photogazetteer of Roman and Etruscan cities and monuments (with a very large site on the city of Rome of course); a site for teaching yourself to read Latin inscriptions; the complete Latin texts of Pliny the Elder's Natural History, Quintus Curtius' Histories of Alexander the Great, the Saturnalia of Macrobius, and Censorinus' de Die Natali; Suetonius, Velleius Paterculus, the Historia Augusta, Claudian, Frontinus, Vitruvius, Celsus, and Cato's de Re Rustica in both Latin and English; complete English translations of Polybius, Cassius Dio, Dio Chrysostom, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Appian's Civil Wars and Quintilian; Rodolfo Lanciani's book Pagan and Christian Rome, Christian Hülsen's book on the Roman Forum, Bury's 2-vol. History of the Later Roman Empire, Bevan's House of Ptolemy, 4 books on Roman Britain, George Dennis's Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria; Platner and Ashby's Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (nearly complete) and most of Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities; a fair amount of Plutarch and Ptolemy's Geography; some maps of the Roman Empire, and lots more. Courtesy of the University of Chicago.
The Last Days of Socrates : This site is designed to help first year philosophy students read the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, and the death scene from the Phaedo.
Levantia : Social History of the Levant - Levantia is a site for the social history of the Roman Empire and Near East, roughly between the ninth and thirteenth centuries. It explores this especially by means of practical reconstruction and experimentation. It also includes discussion of the issues of historiographic method and representation in public contexts.
Livius : Articles on Ancient History. (Almost) all articles by Jona Lendering © 1995-2013; Photography: often by Marco Prins © 2002-2012.
A Look at the Lives of the First 12 Roman Emperors (the "Caesars"). N.S. Gill, ThoughtCo., October 24, 2017.
Mapping History (Sweetbriar College) - The Mapping History Project has been designed to provide interactive and animated representations of fundamental historical problems and/or illustrations of historical events, developments, and dynamics. The material is copyrighted, but is open and available to academic users. Inquiries about the re-use of the material in a commercial or academic context should be sent to the editors. Modules under European history include:
Greek and Phoenician Colonization
(1) Origins and Movements of Greek Intellectuals
(2) Sanctuaries and Diplomacy in the Greek World
(3) Roman Italy in the Republic
(5) Rome and Asia Minor
(6) Crisis of the 3rd Century
Marcus Aurelius essay via History.com Known for his philosophical interests, Marcus Aurelius was one of the most respected emperors in Roman history.
Marcus Tullius Cicero essay via History.com A brilliant lawyer and the first of his family to achieve Roman office, Cicero was one of the leading political figures of the era of Julius Caesar, Pompey, Marc Antony and Octavian. A string of misjudged alliances saw him exiled and eventually murdered, but Cicero’s writings barely waned in influence over the centuries. It was through him that the thinkers of the Renaissance and Enlightenment discovered the riches of Classical rhetoric and philosophy.
Mark Antony essay via History.com The Roman politician and general Mark Antony (83–30 B.C.) was an ally of Julius Caesar and the main rival of his successor Octavian (later Augustus). With those two men he was integral to Rome’s transition from republic to empire. His romantic and political alliance with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra was his ultimate undoing, and centuries later provided inspiration for artists from Shakespeare to Cecil B. DeMille.
Nero : Emperor of Rome courtesy of Awesome Stories.
Nero essay via History.com Perhaps the most infamous of Rome’s emperors, Nero Claudius Caesar (37-68 A.D.) ruled Rome from 54 A.D. until his death by suicide 14 years later. He is best known for his debaucheries, political murders, persecution of Christians and a passion for music that led to the probably apocryphal rumor that Nero “fiddled” while Rome burned during the great fire of 64 A.D.
Odyssey Online : Greece - An interactive learning site about Ancient Greece sponsored by the Carlos Museum at Emory University.
Orbis : The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World : Spanning one-ninth of the earth's circumference across three continents, the Roman Empire ruled a quarter of humanity through complex networks of political power, military domination and economic exchange. These extensive connections were sustained by premodern transportation and communication technologies that relied on energy generated by human and animal bodies, winds, and currents....Conventional maps that represent this world as it appears from space signally fail to capture the severe environmental constraints that governed the flows of people, goods and information. Cost, rather than distance, is the principal determinant of connectivity....For the first time, ORBIS allows us to express Roman communication costs in terms of both time and expense. By simulating movement along the principal routes of the Roman road network, the main navigable rivers, and hundreds of sea routes in the Mediterranean, Black Sea and coastal Atlantic, this interactive model reconstructs the duration and financial cost of travel in antiquity....Taking account of seasonal variation and accommodating a wide range of modes and means of transport, ORBIS reveals the true shape of the Roman world and provides a unique resource for our understanding of premodern history.
The Phoenicians : It is true that the Phoenicians were the great sea-traders of the ancient Mediterranean, famous for their cedar ships, the alphabet, purple cloth, cities in Lebanon, Carthage, and Hannibal. Here you will find additional details and images that explore all those things. Yet the Phoenicians were also much more than that, creating a strong and unique society, and interacting with the other great societies of antiquity such as Greece, Rome, Egypt, Persia and many others. This part of their life is just now coming into view through scholarly research and archaeology. The latest information available anywhere on the Internet is found here in a series of academic papers which are fully annotated with sources.
Peloponnesian War Topic courtesy of the History Channel.
Pleiades : Pleiades gives scholars, students and enthusiasts worldwide the ability to use, create and share historical geographic information about the Greek and Roman World in digital form.
Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics : A collaborative project of the Classics Department of Princeton University and the Classics Department of Stanford University. Its purpose is to make the results of current research undertaken by members of Princeton and Stanford Universities in the field of classics available in advance of final publication.
Private Life of the Romans : This classic work, written by Harold Johnston and revised by Mary Johnston, provides a clear and concise introduction to Roman daily life. Topics covered include the family, the Roman name, marriage and the position of women, children and education, slaves, clients, the house and its furniture, clothing, food and meals, amusements, travel and correspondence, religion, funeral ceremonies and burial customs. Digital copy of book by Harold Whetstone Johnston, Revised by Mary Johnston, Scott, Foresman and Company (1903, 1932).
Punic Wars Topic courtesy of the History Channel. Carthage versus Rome.
Pyrhhic Victory. Article by N. S. Gill from Thought.co, March 8, 2017.
The Real Story of the Olympic Games provided by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. The ancient Olympic Games were primarily a part of a religious festival in honor of Zeus, the father of the Greek gods and goddesses. The festival and the games were held in Olympia, a rural sanctuary site in the western Peloponnesos....The Greeks that came to the Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia shared the same religious beliefs and spoke the same language. The athletes were all male citizens of the city-states from every corner of the Greek world, coming from as far away as Iberia (Spain) in the west and the Black Sea (Turkey) in the east....This website is a comprehensive resource about the ancient Olympic Games and reveals how similar our current games are in comparison.
Romae Vitam (Everything Ancient Rome) is a site dedicated to the history of Ancient Rome and to the culture, way of life and technology of the Ancient Romans. Be sure to visit our Facebook page and to sign up to keep up with all the new additions to our site.
Roman Army Talk Forum. The place to go if you want to chat about the ancient world and hang out with likeminded people.
Roman World courtesy of the Penn Museum at the University of Pennsylvania.
The Romans : A companion web site to Antony Kamm's The Romans (2nd edition). Includes commentary and resources on origins, Republic, Caesars, religion, life, art, literature, army, and empire.
Romans Online Collection by the BBC. Sections include : (1) Overview: Roman Britain, 43 - 410 AD - Conquered for vanity, half-heartedly Romanised and eventually abandoned to its fate, Roman Britain represents a fascinating microcosm of the rise and fall of an empire. (2) Rome's Pivotal Emperors - Of the many men who led Rome, only a handful can truly be said to have profoundly and fundamentally shaped the empire's structure and direction. This gallery introduces six of the most important Roman emperors. (3) Roman Britain. (4) Roman Religion Gallery - Browse through the gallery to consider the issue of Roman religion as a whole, and to examine some of the different layers that made it up. (5) Life in Ancient Rome. (6) Gladiators. (7) Pompeii.
Romans and Their Dead. One cannot say the Romans enjoyed death, that is a phrasing which gives a strange impression, but it is not that far away from the truth. Violence and death for entertainment was big business – much more real than nowadays – and funerals were a serious affair in more than one respect.
Rome Project (for 6th Grade Social Studies) Don't be fooled by the label for 6th Grade Social Studies. There's a lot of good information available here, sorted by topics, including links to web pages created at various universities.
Scholarly Bibliographies Available Online: Classical Antiquity : A wiki project.
Seneca the Younger. This image depicts a sculpture of Seneca the Younger—by Puerta de Almodóvar—in Córdoba, Spain. Seneca the Younger's real name was Lucius Annaeus Seneca (just like his father, who was known as "Seneca the Elder"). Seneca may have been born in Corduba (now Córdoba)—in approximately 3 B.C.—although scholars do not have documentary evidence to confirm his birthplace. Historians believe that he and his family moved to Rome when Seneca was a boy. A Stoic philosopher, lawyer, brilliant orator, master of rhetoric and a prolific writer, Seneca was one of Rome's greatest intellectuals during the first century. Awesome Stories.
Septimius Severus - Rome's African Emperor. Septimius Severus was the first Roman Emperor born in Africa. He ruled between AD 193 and 211. Although his family was of Phoenician rather than black African descent, ancient literary sources refer to the dark colour of his skin and relate that he kept his African accent into old age. He was an accomplished general who, having defeated his internal enemies in a series of civil wars, went on to victories at the furthest frontiers of the Empire, from Mesopotamia to Britain, where he died, at York (Eboracum) in AD 211. Awesome Stories.
Sexual Crimes in Ancient Egypt? "The first man ever to be fired for sexual assault - 3,000 YEARS ago": 'Astonishing' rape charges against a powerful Egyptian are found on ancient papyrus. Article by Tim Collins, Daily Mail, April 13, 2018.
Sparta Reconsidered : Sparta is most commonly known today as the militaristic rival of "enlightened" Athens in ancient Greece. It is remembered for its military accomplishments-particularly the heroic defence under King Leonidas of the Pass at Thermopylae against the Persian Invasion in 480 BC and for its crushing defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War. Images of harsh discipline, a merciless emphasis on courage and a society lacking art, literature and culture predominate in popular literature and non-specialist education. In fact, ancient Sparta-or Lakedaemon as it was known in ancient Greece-was far more complex and multifaceted. A web site created and maintained by Helena P. Schrader, historian and novelist. Includes observations on art, diplomacy, economy, education, ethos, Leonidas, marriage, revolution, sexuality, women, and recommendations for further reading.
A Taste of the Ancient World: Religion and Death - Gods were believed to watch over the success or failure of crops. Sacrifice - the offering of food to the gods - formed the principal link between mortals and the beings they worshipped. Death was observed and the dead commemorated with meals. Nothing played a more integral role in religious practices and beliefs in the ancient world than the sharing and consumption of food.
Trojan War Topic courtesy of the History Channel.
Troy courtesy of Awesome Stories.
University of Michigan Papyrus Collection : Sponsors some online exhibits for K-12 as well as an extensive collection for research.
Voice of the Shuttle : Classical Studies Collection : A large index of links to various classical history, art, archaeology, language and literature journals, texts, syllabi, forums, and other resources. From the University of California at Santa Barbara. Categories include:
(1) Language Resources
(3) History & Culture
(7) Classical Studies Journals
(8) Classics Depts., Programs & Associations
(9) Course Syllabi
(10) Classical Studies Listservs & Newsgroups
(11) Classical Studies Conferences & Calls for Papers
Feeling lucky? Try Google.
Combat of Romans and Dacians (after a relief on the Arch of Constantine, Rome) - Nicolas Beatrizet - 1960/2.41 Courtesy of the University of Michigan
Love and Revenge in Ancient Rome
In theaters now is a grand chariot race—that of a Jewish prince against his adopted brother, who falsely accused him of treason and effectively sentenced him to a life of slavery. Ben-Hur is a re-adaptation of the 1880 novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ by Lew Wallace, the first film adaptation having been released in 1959, and offers moviegoers a glimpse of Rome, where filming took place. The film deals not only with ancient Roman revenge, however: Those interested in Christianity and its history will appreciate Ben-Hur’s many encounters with Jesus, through whom he finds redemption. Directed by Timur Bekmambetov, Ben-Hur stars Jack Huston as Judah Ben-Hur, Nazanin Boniadi as his love interest, Ayelet Zurer as his mother, and Morgan Freeman as the sheik who trains him to become a charioteer.
Immerse yourself in information about ancient Rome, chariot races, the rise of Christianity, and more with these free resources provided by your leading history publisher.