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Michigan State University

School Gardening in the early 1900s through today: Contemporary works-Articles

Primary source materials and information about gardening within K-12 schools in the early 20th century through today. Now a part of the AgNIC network!


I can not possible provide a complete and ongoing bibliography of all the articles on school gardens and gardening. However, there are a number of journals that have repeatedly published articles on this topic and should be searched periodically by those seeking more research on this topic.  The journals are listed below and are linked to the WorldCat record.

Children's Environments, now Children, youth and environments: CYE. ISSN 1546-2250 [online journal, access with free registration]
HortTechnology, ISSN 1063-0198
Social Studies and the Young Learner. Washington, D.C. : National Council for the Social Studies.  ISSN 1056-0300

Selected documents are listed in alphabetical order by author.

Åkerblom, Petter. (2005). Footprints of School Gardens in Sweden. Garden History 32(2): 229-247.

Aguilar, O. M., T. M. Waliczek, et al. (2008). Growing environmental stewards: the overall effect of a school gardening program on environmental attitudes and environmental locus of control of different demographic groups of elementary school children. HortTechnology 18(2): 243-249.

Bergsund, M. (2009). “The Benefits of a School Garden.”

Blair, Dorothy. (2009). The child in the garden: an evaluative review of the benefits of school gardening. Journal of Environmental Education 40(2), 15-38.

Davis, O.L. Jr. School Gardens and National Purpose During World War I. Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society 22. (April 1995): 115-12.
NOTE - the link goes to a pdf document of 1,653  pages!  The articles is on pdf pages 688-699.

Dirks, A. E. and K. Orvis (2005). An evaluation of the Junior Master Gardener program in third grade classrooms. HortTechnology 15(3): 443-447.

Evers, A. M., L. Linden, et al. (2000). A review of human issues in horticulture in Finland: urbanization motivates a renewed appreciation for plants and nature. HortTechnology 10(1): 24-26.

GreenHeart Education. (2010). “The Value of School Gardens.”

Groening, G. (1995). School garden and kleingaerten: For education and enhancing life quality. Horticulture in human life, culture, and environment. XXIV International Horticultural Congress, 21-27 August, 1994, Kyoto, Japan. Acta Horticulturae 391:53-64.

Klemmer, C. D., T. M. Waliczek, et al. (2005). Development of a science achievement evaluation instrument for a school garden program. HortTechnology 15(3): 433-438.

Klemmer, C. D., T. M. Waliczek, et al. (2005). Growing minds: the effect of a school gardening program on the science achievement of elementary students. HortTechnology 15(3): 448-452.

Koch, S., T. M. Waliczek, et al. (2006). The effect of a summer garden program on the nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of children. HortTechnology 16(4): 620-625.

Kohlstedt. Sally Gregory. (2008). A Better Crop of Boys and Girls: The School Gardening Movement, 1890–1920. History of Education Quarterly 48.1: 58-93.

Konoshima, H. (1995). Participation of school children in agricultural activities at school farms in Shiga Prefecture. Horticulture in human life, culture, and environment. XXIV International Horticultural Congress, 21-27 August, 1994, Kyoto, Japan. Acta Horticulturae 391:217-222.

LifeCycles. (n.d.). “Questions About School Gardens.”

Lineberger, S. E. and J. M. Zajicek (2000). School gardens: can a hands-on teaching tool affect students' attitudes and behaviors regarding fruit and vegetables? HortTechnology 10(3): 593-597.

McGann, M. R. and R. D. Berghage (2004). The Pennsylvania State University Medieval Garden: using a specialized garden as an alternative teaching and learning environment. HortTechnology 14(1): 155-160.

Miller, D. L. The Seeds of Learning: Young Children Develop Important Skills Through Their Gardening Activities at a Midwestern Early Education Program. Applied Environmental Education & Communication 6(1):49-66.

Mohrmann, P. (1999). Planting the seeds of science: the school garden– a perfect laboratory for teaching science. Instructor 108(i6): 25-29.

O'Brien, S. A. and C. A. Shoemaker (2006). An after-school gardening club to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among fourth grade students: the assessment of social cognitive theory constructs. HortTechnology 16(1): 24-29.

O'Callaghan, A. M. (2005). Creating a school gardens program in the challenging environment of Las Vegas, Nevada. HortTechnology 15(3): 429-433.

Phibbs, E. J. and D. Relf (2005). Improving research on youth gardening. HortTechnology 15(3): 425-428.

Pigg, A. E., T. M. Waliczek, et al. (2006). Effects of a gardening program on the academic progress of third, fourth, and fifth grade math and science students. HortTechnology 16(2): 262-264.

Pivnick, J. (1994). Sowing a school garden: reaping an environmental ethic. Green Teacher 38:7-8.

Poston, S. A., C. A. Shoemaker, et al. (2005). A comparison of a gardening and nutrition program with a standard nutrition program in an out-of-school setting. HortTechnology 15(3): 463-467.

Robinson, C. W. and J. M. Zajicek (2005). "rowing minds: the effects of a one-year school garden program on six constructs of life skills of elementary school children. HortTechnology 15(3): 453-457.

Robin, Libby. 2001. School gardens and beyond: Progressive conservation, moral imperatives and the local landscape. Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly 21 (2): 87-92.

Sarver, M.D. (1985). Agritherapy: plants as learning partners. Academic Therapy 20(4): 389-396.

Smith, L. L. and C. E. Motsenbocker (2005). Impact of hands-on science through school gardening in Louisiana public elementary schools. HortTechnology 15(3): 439-443.

Templeton, S. R., C. Brown, et al. (2000). An economic analysis of environmental horticulture with a focus on California. HortScience 35(6): 987-992.

United States Botanic Garden and Chicago Botanic Garden School Garden Wizard. (n.d.). “Learn in the Garden.”

Waliczek, T. M., J. C. Bradley, et al. (2000). Using a web-based survey to research the benefits of children gardening. HortTechnology 10(1): 71-76.

Waliczek, T. M., J. C. Bradley and J.M. Zajicek. (2001) The effect of school gardens on children's interpersonal relationships and attitudes toward school. HortTechnology 11(3): 466-468.

Williams, Dilafruz R. and P. Scott Dixon. Impact of Garden-Based Learning on Academic Outcomes in Schools: Synthesis of Research Between 1990 and 2010. Review of Educational Research, (2013) 83: 211-235, doi:10.3102/0034654313475824