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Michigan State University

Political Science / Public Policy Resources: Reference Tools

Reference Tools

Need some more background information about that new concept you learned in class today? Writing a paper on a topic that's new to you? Not sure what topic to choose for your paper? Answer yes to any of these questions, and a subject-specific reference book may be the thing for you.

Reference books include dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, directories, manuals, handbooks, and much more. Reference books can help you

  1. explore a topic (find out what has been said about a topic, trends, issues, etc.
  2. identify unfamiliar terms or people in your reading
  3. find references to other books and articles on the topic, and
  4. find keywords to use in online searches.

Library encyclopedias and handbooks aren't searchable or freely available on the web, but you can still access many of them online by logging in with your MSU ID...and feel confident using them as a bona-fide scholarly resource that is written by an expert in the field and reviewed for accuracy!

Wikipedia is a common starting point for many people researching a new topic, but unlike scholarly subject-specific encyclopedias, most professors will not allow you to cite Wikipedia in your bibliography. View this video tutorial, Wikipedia: Beneath the Surface, from North Carolina State University Libraries for more information about how Wikipedia works and its information quality.

This page pulls together a sample of both electronic and print reference tools.

Tracking Current Events?

CQ Weekly, October 1983 to date : The pre-eminent resource for Congress-watchers who need nonpartisan information on Capitol Hill.  Note that access to CQ Weekly through the CQ Electronic Library goes back to October 1983, an additional fifteen years more than what is available through Proquest.

CQ Researcher Plus Archive, 1923 to date : This web file provides 48 reports a year on current, hot, and controversial topics such as "Embryo Research," "Rethinking Ritalin," "Drinking on Campus," and "Subsidized Access to the Internet for the Poor." Among the file's assets are its balanced introductions to these issues; others include its generous selection of cross references to past reports, excellent tables and graphs, and clear instructions on how to cite the resource. A full text product.

National Journal : Read the leading nonpartisan weekly on politics, policy and government.

Michigan Report
The Gongwer News Service provides daily updates on news related to Michigan government and politics. Note: only accessible within the MSU Main Library. 

MIRS : MIRS provides comprehensive news and analysis of state government delivered in written reports detailing the activities of the House, Senate, Judicial and Executive branches of Michigan state government. The company provides its service Monday through Friday of every week (No reports on state government holidays). The reports include a written component (Capitol Capsule), and action reports which list the bills dealt with during each legislative session day in each chamber of the Legislature. MIRS' Capitol Capsule features news on what is happening with key legislative initiatives, prospects for action, in-depth coverage of elections and coverage of key news events such as party conventions, public policy conferences and the like. Our reporters also bring you keen insight on what's happening on issues, how those issues may impact state elections and politics and much more.

Michigan Policy Network : The Michigan Policy Network is a student-led public education and research program to report and organize news and information about the political process surrounding Michigan state policy issues. It is run out of the Department of Political Science at Michigan State University, with participation by students from the College of Social Science, the College of Communication, and James Madison College.

For additional sources of current news, click on the Breaking News tab at the top. 

Basic Reference Tools (Online)

If you don't know where to start, you may want to try one of the following online compilations of reference tools:

Annual Review of Political Science : Comprehensive review of the literature in political science. Can help students identify major trends in the field as well as find general overviews of research in specific subject areas of politics. Available online from v. 1, 1998.

Oxford Bibliographies Online : Political Science : Combining the best features of an annotated bibliography and a high-level encyclopedia, this cutting-edge resource guides researchers to the best available scholarship across a wide variety of subjects.  In the case of political science, it starts with Advanced Democracies, electoral system reform and continues through Worker Politics in China.

Gale Virtual Reference Library : Includes encyclopedic articles on historical and contemporary research topics.  You may have to click more than once to make this link work.

Oxford Reference Online : Contains online versions of dictionaries and encyclopedias previously published in paper by the Oxford University Press.

Sage Reference Online : Includes numerous encyclopedias and handbooks, primarily in the Social Sciences.

Recommended Reference Tools (Online)

21st Century Political Science  : A Reference Handbook / editors, John T. Ishiyama, Marijke Breuning.  Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications, 2011.  JA66 .A21 2011 Online : Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," the SAGE 21st Century Reference Series volumes on political science will highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in this field ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. The purpose is to provide undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that will serve their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but not so much jargon, detail, or density as a journal article or a research handbook chapter.  The two volumes are divided into six major parts: (I) General Approaches in Political Science, (II) Comparative Politics, (III) International Relations, (IV) Political Science Methodology, (V) Political Thought, and (VI) American Politics....In Part I, we cover the history of the discipline (e.g., the behavioral revolution, the rise of neoinstitutionalism, and the postbehavioral critique), as well as several general approaches in political science (such as rational choice, political psychology, and principal–agent theory)....Part II, on comparative politics, focuses on topics related to political development (such as modernization theory, dependency and development, statism), political violence (e.g., coups, civil wars, terrorism, ethnic conflict), political institutions (the effects of electoral laws, presidentialism, federalism, comparative judicial politics), political culture and civil society (religion and comparative politics, ethnic identity), and comparative methods (case studies, most-similar and most-different systems approaches)....Part III deals with essential approaches in international relations, including chapters on realism and neorealism, liberalism, world-systems analysis, and foreign policy analysis. There are also chapters on international conflict and war (e.g., on the balance of power, rivalry and interstate war, and the democratic peace), international political economy (e.g., complex interdependence, trade, and resource scarcity and rentierism), and global governance (international organizations and regimes and international law)....Political science methodology is covered by Part IV. We begin with chapters on the philosophy of science (including empirical approaches, positivism and its critique, and constructivism), followed by chapters that illustrate commonly used quantitative and qualitative techniques (such as regression analysis, survey research methods, experimentation, and content analysis) and then by chapters on game theory and formal modeling approaches in political science. These chapters in particular are meant to be easily understandable to students who are just beginning to engage in political science research....Part V includes chapters on political thought, not only Western political thought but from elsewhere in the world as well. We made a conscious effort to include chapters not only on the Western classics (the “ancients,” enlightenment thinkers, neoclassical liberalism, socialism, anarchism, etc.), but also on Asian political thought, Islamic political thought, and Christian political thought. Thus students will have exposure to points of view that are not entirely rooted in the Western experience. The ability to view fundamental political issues from different points of view is, we believe, an essential skill students must have for the 21st century....Finally, in Part VI, we cover American politics. We include chapters on the political structures and institutions of the United States (including chapters that cover research on Congress, the presidency, the bureaucracy, federalism, state and local politics, and the media) and political behavior (including public opinion and voting behavior, as well as policy making and administration). Furthermore, we have included a section on an increasingly important area in the study of American politics (which we believe will only grow in importance in the 21st century): identity politics. There are chapters that cover topics such as race, ethnicity, and politics; gender and politics; religion and politics; and LGBT issues and queer theory.

The Blackwell Dictionary of Political Science  : A User's Guide to its Terms / Frank Bealey.  Oxford, UK ; Malden, Mass. : Blackwell Publishers, 1999.  384pp.  (Also available in print) : Provides students and general readers with a clear and lively introduction to the terminology of political science.

Book of the States Archive available back to 1935.

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics via Oxford Reference Online (2003). (Also available in print)
Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Second Edition, 2003. 1,500 entries. Covering political institutions, concepts, leaders, and thinkers, the second edition of this best-selling dictionary of political terms has been fully revised and updated with over 200 new entries. New entries include commentary on the Middle East, ethnic cleansing, NGOs, and direct action. With an international and wide-ranging scope, the dictionary encompasses issues such as voting theory and feminism, to Chinese and Muslim political thought.  

Congress and the Nation via CQ Press Political Reference Suite
For over forty years, Congress and the Nation has been the definitive resource for researchers studying the actions of the U.S. Congress. This well established series from CQ Press/Sage offers comprehensive and signature coverage of Congressional action from 1945 to 2004. Congress and the Nation is the only resource that makes the actions of Congress understandable to any reader. Congress and the Nation in print and online provides:
(1) Renowned, authoritative coverage of the events, trends, and controversies in the U.S. Congress and the presidency -— from the administration of Harry S. Truman through the first term of President George W. Bush
(2) Accessible, in-depth review and analysis of legislation and policy during each Congressional session and presidential term—organized by policy area
(3) An unprecedented amount of coverage neatly organized and arranged to tell the story of the times

CQ Electronic Library
Provides full text access to the CQ Weekly, known as the pre-eminent resource for Congress-watchers who need nonpartisan information on Capitol Hill, and the CQ Researcher, which provides analysis of current public policy topics.

CQ Voting and Elections Collection
From the American voter, to major and minor political parties, to actual races for Congress, the presidency, and governorships, the CQ Voting and Elections Collection provides context-driven intelligence on the state of the free and fair elections in America. A special option allows your patrons to download datasets. "Elections Encyclopedia" explains more than 200 topics. "Calendar" and "Chronology" features provide overviews of upcoming election events as well as election events in history. 

The Encyclopedia of Political Science / George Thomas Kurian, editor in chief ; James E. Alt ... [et al.], associate editors ; prepared with the assistance of the American Political Science Association. Washington, D.C. : CQ Press, c2010.  (Also available in print) : The first work of its kind, The encyclopedia of political science comprehensively examines the central ideas, concepts, and frameworks underlying the study of politics and highlights the intersections of politics with other disciplines. Explore wide range of concepts and frameworks, both Western and non-Western, national and international. Utilize a thematic table of contents that maps major subfields and topics in politics. Search through over 1,500 A to Z signed entries by contributors from over 30 countries.

Encyclopedia of U.S. Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior via Sage Reference Online :  This massive work is designed to be informative and "enjoyable reading." The more than 450 entries (events, phrases, people) include each state and each presidential election, but not each candidate or winner. Many entries - "Battleground States," "Catholic Vote," "Farm Vote," "Issue Ownership Theory," "Nonvoters," "Voter Alienation" - are clear explanations of phrases heard in the news. Large issues, such as campaigns, are divided into subsets, e.g., "Campaigns, Local," and "Campaigns, U.S. Representatives." References to the 2008 campaigns are included. Articles vary in their approach; some state entries are political histories, whereas others recount the state's history from its Native American roots to today. Each entry has fine cross-references and a bibliography. Frequent black-and-white photographs mostly depict politicians and issues related to campaigns (such as images of hospital patients in "Healthcare"). Historical information on suffrage, the black vote, and each presidential election is excellent.

Encyclopedia of United States National Security via Gale Virtual Reference Library
Richard J. Samuels, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference, 2006. 922 pp. 2 vols.
Covers the origin, development, and results of all major national security policies over the last seven decades. A thoroughly interdisciplinary work, the encyclopedia views national security from a historical, economic, political, and technological perspective.

Encyclopedia of U.S. Political History via CQ Press (2010). (Also available in print)
Explores the events, policies, activities, institutions, groups, people, and movements that have created and shaped political life in the United States. With contributions from scholars in the fields of history and political science, this seven-volume set provides students, researchers, and scholars the opportunity to examine the political evolution of the United States from the 1500s to the present day. Contents :
VOLUME 1, Colonial Beginnings through Revolution, 1500–1783 : The colonial period witnessed the transformation of thirteen distinct colonies into an independent federated republic. This volume discusses the diversity of the colonial political experience—a diversity that modern scholars have found defies easy synthesis—as well as the long-term conflicts, policies, and events that led to revolution, and the ideas underlying independence.
VOLUME 2, The Early Republic, 1784-1840 : No period in the history of the United States was more critical to the foundation and shaping of American politics than the early American republic. This volume discusses the era of Confederation, the shaping of the U.S. Constitution, and the development of the party system.
VOLUME 3, Expansion, Division, and Reconstruction, 1841-1877 : This volume examines three decades in the middle of the nineteenth century, which witnessed: the emergence of the debate over slavery in the territories, which eventually led to the Civil War; the military conflict itself from 1861 until 1865; and the process of Reconstruction, which ended with the readmission of all of the former Confederate States to the Union and the “withdrawal” of the last occupying federal troops from those states in 1877.
VOLUME 4, From the Gilded Age through the Age of Reform, 1878-1920 : With the withdrawal of federal soldiers from Southern states the previous year, 1878 marked a new focus in American politics, and it became recognizably modern within the next 40 years. This volume focuses on race and politics; economics, labor, and capitalism; agrarian politics and populism; national politics; progressivism; foreign affairs; World War I; and the end of the progressive era.
VOLUME 5, Prosperity, Depression, and War, 1921-1945 : Between 1921 and 1945, the U.S. political system exhibited significant patterns of both continuity and change in a turbulent time marked by racist conflicts, the Great Depression, and World War II. The main topics covered in this volume are declining party identification; the “Roosevelt Coalition”; evolving party organization; congressional inertia in the 1920s; the New Deal; Congress during World War II; the growth of the federal government; Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency; the Supreme Court’s conservative traditions; and a new judicial outlook.
VOLUME 6, Postwar Consensus to Social Unrest, 1946-1975 : This volume examines the postwar era with the consolidation of the New Deal, the onset of the Cold War, and the Korean War. It then moves into the 1950s and early 1960s, and discusses the Vietnam war; the era of John F. Kennedy; the Cuban Missile Crisis; the Civil Rights Act; Martin Luther King and the Voting Rights Act; antiwar movements; The War Powers Act; environmental policy; the Equal Rights Amendment; Roe v. Wade; Watergate; and the end of the Vietnam War.
VOLUME 7, The Clash of Conservatism and Liberalism, 1976 to present : The troubled Carter Administration, 1977–1980, proved to be the political gateway for the resurgence of a more ideologically conservative Republican party led by a popular president, Ronald Reagan. The last volume of the Encyclopedia covers politics and national institutions in a polarized era of nationally competitive party politics and programmatic debates about taxes, social policy, and the size of national government. It also considers the mixed blessing of the change in superpower international competition associated with the end of the Cold War. Stateless terrorism (symbolized by the 9/11 attacks), the continuing American tradition of civil liberties, and the broad change in social diversity wrought by immigration and the impact in this period of the rights revolutions are also covered.

Historic Documents Series via CQ Political Reference Suite
Published annually since 1972, the Historic Documents Series by CQ Press/Sage now contains 36 volumes of primary sources. Each volume includes approximately one hundred documents covering the most significant events of the year. These documents range from presidential speeches, international agreements, and Supreme Court decisions to U.S. governmental reports, scientific findings, and cultural discussions.

International Encyclopedia of Political Science (Part of Sage Knowledge).  2011.  8 volumes.  With entries from leading international scholars from around the world, the International Encyclopedia of Political Science provides a definitive, comprehensive picture of all aspects of political life, recognizing its theoretical foundations and including empirical findings from across the globe. The eight volumes examine all the main subdisciplines of political science and include coverage of comparative politics, epistemology, political economy, political sociology, and international relations.  Readers will find theoretical and empirical background on other important issues such as global security, the relationship between religion and the state, and political issues related to gender and race/ethnicity. The International Encyclopedia of Political Science provides an essential, authoritative guide to the state of political science at the start of the 21st century and for decades to come, making it an invaluable resource for a global readership, including researchers, students, citizens, and policy makers.

International Studies Online (online version of International Studies Encyclopedia).

Oxford Companion to Politics of the World via Oxford Reference Online (Also available in print)
Joel Krieger, ed. Oxford University Press. Second edition, 2001. Over 600 articles. This major new edition of The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World reflects the changing world with a reassessment of many of the core themes of the previous edition, and new articles on the people, concepts, and events that have shaped the world since 1993. The second edition includes biographies of Kofi Annan, Tony Blair, Bill Clinton, and Gerhard Schroder; articles on events such as the Rwandan Genocide and the war in Kosovo; and coverage of international trade developments such as NAFTA and the World Trade Organization. Eighty-seven of the 672 articles in the Second Edition are completely new; most others are thoroughly revised....This edition also features a substantial new set of articles, a dozen essays on critical isssues written by influential figures. Recognizing the importance of including varying viewpoints, the editors have commissioned these essays to provide an informed and often passionate debate on controversial topics. Discussions include Lani Guinier and Glenn Loury on Affirmative Action; Francis Fukuyama and Milton Fisk on the Limits of Liberal Democracy; and Lloyd Axworthy and John Bolton on the United Nations.

Oxford Guide to the United States Government via Oxford Reference Online
John J. Patrick, Richard M. Pious, and Donald A. Ritchie. Oxford University Press. 2002. This is the ultimate resource for authoritative information on the American Presidency, Congress, and Supreme Court. Compiled by three leading scholars, it contains the key figures, events, and structures that have animated U.S. government for more than 200 years. In addition to coverage of the 2000 Presidential race and election, it features biographies of all the Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Supreme Court Justices, as well as notable members of Congress, including current leadership; historical commentary on past elections, major Presidential decisions, international and domestic programs, and the key advisors and agencies of the executive branch; in-depth analysis of Congressional leadership and committees, agencies and staff, and historic legislation; and detailed discussions of 100 landmark Supreme Court cases and the major issues facing the Court today. Other entries define legal terms and phrases and elaborate on the wide array of government traditions.

Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions via Oxford Reference Online
Kermit L. Hall. Oxford University Press. 2002. 445 entries. This dictionary includes all 400 entries on major Supreme Court cases through history published in the acclaimed Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, in addition to approximately 45 new entries for the post-1991 decisions. It also gives entries on the U.S. Constitution, and the nominations and successions of justices. Terms covered in the Companion are briefly defined and explained, and a complete case list is given.

Political Handbook of the World via CQ Political Reference Suite
Provides thorough and accurate information on the major aspects of each country's government and political party system. As a convenient, one-volume print source for global political information, each edition features country profiles that include:
(1) Key facts: Political status, area, population, major urban centers, official language, monetary unit, heads of government, heads of state, ambassadors, and U.S. and U.N. representation.
(2) Government and political history: Historical trends, regime changes, constitutional history, and regional and global policy issues of concern.
(3) Current Issues: Headline-making events, trends, controversies, and challenges.
(4) Political parties and organizations: Leading and minor parties, quasi-partisan and extra-systemic organizations, alliances, party histories, ideology, and leadership.
(5) Legislatures and cabinets: Recent national election results, legislative leaders, cabinet ministers. Communications: Names, circulation, and political affiliation of major national media; news agencies; television coverage and Internet usage.
In addition, the Handbook profiles 120 intergovernmental organizations, such as OPEC, NATO, the WTO, world and regional banks, and the agencies and specialized bodies of the United Nations.

Politics in America via CQ Political Reference Suite
Congressional Quarterly's Politics in America is your definitive source for information on members of the U.S. Congress and their districts. Designed for use by political professionals, government officials, students, scholars, and interested citizens, it contains in-depth profiles of every member as well as data on their constituencies, apportionment, and redistricting. This Web site contains profiles of members of the 110th Congress (2007-2008), 109th Congress (2005-2007), 108th Congress (2003-2005), 107th Congress (2001-2003), and 106th Congress (1999-2001).

Supreme Court Yearbook via CQ Political Reference Suite
The Supreme Court Yearbook has provided valuable in-depth coverage and analysis of every decision from the nation's highest court since the 1989-1990 term. Sixteen years of annual reference is now accessible in a powerful, fully searchable online edition that lets users explore expert and timely Supreme Court coverage swiftly and comprehensively. With The Supreme Court Yearbook Online Edition, users will find:
(1) Year-end overviews of Supreme Court terms from 1989-2006
(2) Case summaries of every opinion written during each Supreme Court term
(3) Essays on the most significant cases from each year and the trends in each term
(4) Useful tables and figures on voting patterns and trends in constitutional law
(5) Reference documents for understanding how the Supreme Court works

Vital Statistics on American Politics via CQ Political Reference Suite
Topically organized, Vital Statistics on American Politics 2009- 2010 is a rich and authoritative resource of data offering more than 230 tables and charts covering the full spectrum of American politics dating back to 1788. Introductory material helps readers understand and interpret statistical material, and the annotated reference guide directs users to other valuable sources on political statistics. This fully updated volume is an unrivaled reference for students, researches, and other interested citizens.

Washington Information Directory via CQ Political Reference Suite
The CQ Press Washington Information Directory Online Edition brings together CQ Press's wealth of contact and descriptive information on more than 10,000 federal government offices, regulatory agencies, congressional committees, judicial offices, public interest groups, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations in a single, easy-to-use, and fully integrated database. Searchable and browsable, the Washington Information Directory Online Edition provides verified and updated mailing addresses, phone and fax numbers, e-mail and Web site addresses, contact names, and descriptions for thousands of organizations—along with a letter template tool, a customizable address book, and much more.

Recommended Reference Tools (Print)

Baptism by Fire : Eight Presidents Who Took Office in Times of Crisis / Mark K. Updegrove.  New York : Thomas Dunne Books, 2009.  292pp.  Main Library E176.1 .U688 2009 : Americans have long been defined by how they face adversity. This is perhaps nowhere more evident than in how the nation’s chief executive has tackled myriad issues upon entering the White House. The ways that U.S. presidents handle the vast responsibilities of the Oval Office determine the fate of the nation---and, in many cases, the fate of the world....In this fascinating narrative, presidential historian Mark Updegrove looks at eight U.S. presidents who inherited unprecedented crises immediately upon assuming the reigns of power. George Washington led a fragile and fledgling nation while defining the very role of the presidency. When Thomas Jefferson entered the White House, he faced a nation bitterly divided by a two-party schism far more severe than anything encountered today. John Tyler stepped into the office of the presidency during the constitutional crisis left by the first death of a sitting president. Abraham Lincoln inherited a divided nation on the brink of war. Franklin D. Roosevelt sought to quell America’s fears during the depths of the Great Depression. His successor, Harry S. Truman, was sworn in as commander in chief at the close of World War II, and John F. Kennedy stepped into the increasingly heated atmosphere of the cold war. In the wake of Watergate, the first unelected president, Gerald R. Ford, aimed to end America’s “long national nightmare.”...As the forty-fourth president takes office, Updegrove presents a timely look at these chief executives and the challenges they faced. In examining the ways in which presidents have addressed crises, Baptism by Fire illustrates the importance of character in leadership—and in the resilience of America itself.

Committees in the U.S. Congress, 1789-1946 / [compiled by] David T. Canon, Garrison Nelson, Charles Stewart III.  Washington, D.C. : CQ Press, c2002.  4 volumes. Main Library JK1029 .N45 2002 : Presents a history of congressional committee membership from 1789 to 1946, including members' party affiliations, senority rank, and appointment dates, and brief histories of each committee.

Committees in the U.S. Congress, 1947-1992 / Garrison Nelson with Clark H. Bensen.  Washington, D.C. : Congressional Quarterly, c1993-<c1994>  2 volumes.  Main Library JK1029 .N45 1993 :

Congress A to ZWashington, DC : CQ Press, c2008.  5th edition, 704pp.  Main Library JK1021 .C554 2008  : Present alphabetically arranged entries on the history of Congress, some of its influental members, terms and concepts, scandals, the legislative process, appointments, and appropriations.

Congress and the NationWashington, D.C. : Congressional Quarterly Service, 1965-  Main Library JK1021 .C6 :  Summarizes all congressional activity by presidential term.

Congressional Quarterly Almanac.  Washington, D.C. : Congressional Quarterly Service, 1948-  Main Library JK1 .C663 : Summarizes congressional activity a single year at a time.

Directory of Congressional Voting Scores and Interest Group Ratings / J. Michael Sharp.  Washington, D.C. : CQ Press, c2006.  2 volumes Main Library JK1051 .S555 2006 : Arranged alphabetically in this two-volume reference, entries for every member of Congress since 1947 cite basic biographical data, followed by tables presenting voting scores and interest group ratings, allowing in-depth appraisals and comparisons of voting history. Four voting scores (exclusive to the publisher) indicate support of the Conservative Coalition, alliance with the member's party, support of the President's position, and recorded votes. Interest group ratings represent the percentage of votes on which each member voted in favor of a special group's position. The ten interest groups, each of which is described, comprise Americans for Democratic Action, American Conservative Union, Amcierican Civil Liberties Union, American Security Council, Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Consumer Federation of America, Committee on Political Education of the AFL-CIO, League of Conservation Voters, National Education Association, and National Taxpayers Union.

Elections A to Z / John L. Moore.  Washington, D.C. : CQ Press, c2003.  2nd edition, 614pp.  Main Library JK1976 .M57 2003 : Articles examine the election process for president, Congress, and statewide offices, and discuss the roles of political parties and the media, election scandals, and voting rights.

Encyclopedia of American Political Parties and Elections / Larry J. Sabato, Howard R. Ernst.  New York : Checkmark Books, c2007.  548pp.   Main Library JK2261 .S218 2007 : This new volume contains all the information a reader needs to understand the American election process and its political parties. This complete A-to-Z reference guide covers the people, events, and terms involved in the electoral process. It also provides a history of elections in the United States, focusing primarily on presidential elections." Entries include: absentee voting, blue states, campaign ethics, dark-horse candidate, dirty campaign tricks, election fraud, Electoral College, fund-raising, Internet voting, League of Women Voters, Lincoln-Douglas debates, machine politics, Populist Party, recall, Republican Party, Super Tuesday, voter turnout, and wedge issues.

Encyclopedia of Federal Agencies and Commissions / Kathleen Thompson Hill & Gerald N. Hill.  New York : Facts on File, c2004. 504pp.  Main Library JK9 .H536 2004 : In the current profusion of Web-based government information resources, this encyclopedia provides a welcome print reference guide to the organization, functions, and history of federal agencies. The Hills, coauthors of Real Life Dictionary of American Politics (CH, Dec'94), offer a well-organized volume that describes the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, independent entities, commissions, and quasi-official agencies. The first, longest section covers the executive branch, where each department's entry includes extensive historical background, milestones, organization charts, and narratives on agency roles and missions, followed by descriptions of its major subagencies, bureaus, divisions, and the programs they administer. Briefer entries describe nearly 100 independent agencies, Congress, and the judicial branch. Each entry also supplies mail and Web site contacts, but lacks bibliographies. Gale's valuable Federal Agency Profiles for Students, ed. by Kelle Sisung (CH, Oct'99), overlaps somewhat with the Hills' encyclopedia but lacks currency. A current, highly informative guide to the federal bureaucracy for the general public that will also be welcomed by students and researchers of public administration and government.

Encyclopedia of Government and Politics / edited by Mary Hawkesworth and Maurice Kogan.  London ; New York : Routledge, 2004. 2 volumes.  Reference (1 East) JA61 .C66 2004 : Hawkesworth and Kogan have encouraged the authors of the 88 chapter-length entries in these volumes to provide readers with a state of research for the topic that describes the history of the field, the development of its theoretical trends, and its current aspects. The entries are divided into the broad topics of central concepts of political theory, contemporary ideologies, contemporary political systems, political institutions, political forces and processes, centripetal and centrifugal forces in the nation- state, policy-making and policies, international relations, and major issues in contemporary world politics. Among the 19 chapters in the last category are genocide, Eastern Europe, arms control and disarmament, Latin America, Asia, Africa, and democratization. A random selection of other sections includes such topics as the United Nations, health policy, social movements, identity politics, interest groups, military rule, the Islamic state, and conceptions of human nature. A bibliography is included with each entry.

Encyclopedia of Intelligence and Counterintelligence / edited by Rodney P. Carlisle.   2 volumes.  Main Library JF1525.I6 E64 2005 : It should not surprise anyone that the reference literature on espionage, intelligence, and covert operations is enormous but varied in accuracy and detail. Sharpe's source, the latest and one of the most detailed, has more than 500 entries written by a diverse group of contributors from all perspectives and political viewpoints. The two forewords written by former CIA director Robert Gates and former Soviet KGB officer Oleg Kalugin signal this encyclopedia's inclusiveness. Chronologically and geographically comprehensive, its entries cover all geographic areas, ancient times to the present (there is an entry titled "Ancient Intelligence") but they emphasize events of the last 200 years. Its entries for Al Qaeda, homeland security, terrorism, and war on terrorism reflect the preoccupation with terrorism since September 11. Articles are signed and include lists of sources and see also references. About a third of the entries are biographical; they include major political figures that have influenced the development of intelligence and espionage along with figures in major spy scandals. Other features include a time line, 1294 BCE to the present; a resource guide; excerpts from the 9/11 Commission Report; and subject indexes.

Encyclopedia of Nationalism / editor-in-chief, Alexander Motyl. San Diego, Calif. ; London : Academic Press, c2001.  2 volumes.  Main Library JC311 .E499 2001 : Nationalism has unexpectedly become a leading local and international force since the end of the Cold War. Long predicted to give way to pan-national or economic organizations, nationalism exerts its tremendous force on all continents and in a wide variety of ways. The Encyclopedia of Nationalism captures the aims and scope of this force through a wide-ranging examination of concepts, figures, movements, and events. It is the only encyclopedic study of nationalism available today.

Encyclopedia of Political Communication / [editors] Lynda Lee Kaid, Christina Holtz-Bacha. Los Angeles : Sage Publications, c2008.  2 volumes. Main Library JA85 .E65 2008 : Discusses the major theoretical approaches to the field, including direct and limited effects theories, agenda-setting theories, sociological theories, framing and priming theories, and other past and present conceptualizations. With nearly 600 entries, this resource pays considerable attention to important political messages such as political speeches, televised political advertising, political posters and print advertising, televised political debates, and Internet sites. The audiences for political communications are also central, necessitating concentration on citizen reactions to political messages, how the general public and voters in democratic systems respond to political messages, and the effects of all types of media and message types.

Encyclopedia of Political Thought / [edited by] Garrett Ward Sheldon.  New York : Facts on File, c2001. 342pp.  Main Library JA61 .E53 2001 : A resource for students or general readers who want to know more about the major ideas, philosophies, and concepts of civic administration that have influenced and shaped civilization past and present....With particular emphasis on the 20th century, the encyclopedia contains more than 400 cross-referenced entries that make up an up-to-date survey of topics that have been crucial to the history of humankind, including the rise and fall of communism, the advent of feminism, and the advancement of democracy....Key concepts and controversial issues are clearly defined and thoughtfully analyzed, with examples from current events used to enhance the reader's understanding of the ideas presented. Ideologies are not only considered within historical context but are also related to contemporary politics, enhancing the book's usefulness for reports, student debates, or general research. A chronology provides a linear presentation of the evolution of political thinking.

Encyclopedia of Politics : the Left and the Right / general editor, Rodney P. Carlisle.  Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, c2005.  2 volumes.  Main Library JA61 .E54 2005 : Although the distinction between the politics of the left and the right is commonly assumed in the media and in treatments of political science and history, the terms are used so loosely that the student and the general reader are often confused: What exactly are the terms left and right supposed to imply? This two-volume Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right contains over 450 articles on individuals, movements, political parties, and ideological principles, with those usually thought of as left in the left-hand volume (Volume 1), and those considered on the right in the right-hand volume (Volume 2).

Encyclopedia of Presidential Campaigns, Slogans, Issues, and Platforms / Robert North Roberts and Scott John Hammond.  Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2004. 395pp.  Main Library E176.1 .R6 2004 : I Like Ike. 54-40 or Fight. A Chicken in Every Pot. We are all familiar with these phrases, but did you know they began as presidential campaign slogans? Every presidential candidate must get his or her message out to the voters--but how is it done, and what exactly is the message? Roberts and Hammond collect the many messages and discuss the speeches, buttons, television advertisements, and other means presidential hopefuls have used to get their election platforms across to--and memorized by--a huge voting public.

Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy / edited by Jack Rabin.  New York : Marcel Dekker, c2003.  2 volumes.  Reference (1 East) JK9 .E526 2003 : Provides clearly written and focused A-to-Z entries on critical concepts, personalities, events, and topics in public administration. It explains how government works, defining theories and differentiating between the various agencies that are responsible for creating, enacting, and following through on public policy. Comprehensive and up-to-date, the book guides nonspecialists to vital information on the subject and provides professionals with an easy-to-use, quick reference for basic facts. From health and the environment to education and the economy, this definitive guide covers the bureaus and agencies that manage the day-to-day activities of the government.

Encyclopedia of the American Presidency / editors, Leonard W. Levy, Louis Fisher.  New York : Simon & Schuster, c1994.  4 volumes. Reference (1 East) JK511 .E53 1994 : More than an array of information about U.S. presidents, this work is a readable, interdisciplinary presentation of the people, events, processes, and concepts necessary to understand the American presidency. Besides the expected presidential and vice-presidential biographies (which focus on the subjects' years in office) and sketches of persons important to the presidency (first ladies and other relatives, political opponents, White House press secretaries, cabinet members), there are definitions of terms ("Supply Side Economics"); accounts of historical events ("Mayaguez Capture"), legislation, and court cases; articles on presidential homes and libraries; explanations of relationships between branches of government; and delineations of the powers, prerogatives, and multiple roles of the president. Thought-provoking entries cover portrayals of presidents on film, presidential character, and Supreme Court nominees not confirmed. Separate entries are provided for every presidential election since the first in 1788. Topics as specialized as "Mount Rushmore"; "Stamps Commemorating Presidents"; "Pets, Presidential"; and "Yachts, Presidential" are here. Tables, such as the one that accompanies "Salaries, Executive" are eye-openers: while the president's salary has not changed since 1969, those of the vice-president, cabinet members, the chief justice, and members of Congress have all nearly tripled More than 1,000 signed articles (200 of them biographies) by more than 300 contributors from various institutions and disciplines cover the entire executive branch of government. Each article ends with a bibliography; some are quite brief (that on President Clinton includes one item). Bibliographies cite only author, title, and year of publication for books. More than 40 entries have accompanying tables (e.g., "Assassinations and Assaults", "National Security Advisors", "Vetoes"). There is some redundancy in entries: "Retreats, Presidential" and "Vacation Spots, Presidential" cover a lot of the same ground "See" entries and embedded cross-references noted with small-capital letters lead researchers through the four volumes. In addition, there is an alphabetical list of entries in volume 1 and a classified list in volume 4 that bring entries together under such headings as "Policies and Issues" and "Biographies". Appendixes include a series of tables on presidents, their cabinets, other officials, and presidential election statistics. Volume 4 concludes with a "Table of Cases" and a very detailed index. Since the volumes are numbered consecutively, the page ranges for each volume are given at the bottom of each page of the index.

The Encyclopedia of the Republican Party ; The Encyclopedia of the Democratic Party / edited by George Thomas Kurian ; associate editor, Jeffrey D. Schultz.  Armonk, N.Y. : Sharpe Reference, c1997.  4 volumes.  Main Library JK2352 .K87 1997 : With two volumes devoted to each political party, this set collects present-day information and issues surrounding the Republican and Democratic political parties of the United States, including controversies and biographies of political leaders. 

Encyclopedia of U.S. Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior / Kenneth F. Warren, general editor.  Los Angeles : Sage, c2008.  2 volumes,  Main Library JK2281 .E53 2008 (Also available online) : Covers virtually everything one would want to know about American political campaigns. With more than 450 entries, these two comprehensive volumes present a significant array topics of campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior. The encyclopedia’s diverse content shows that although the subject matter of campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior is inherently related, each topic has a distinct focus.

The Encyclopedia of the United States Congress / edited by Donald C. Bacon, Roger H. Davidson, Morton Keller.  New York : Simon & Schuster, c1995.  4 volumes. Reference (1 East) JK1067 .E63 1995 : In this set aimed at both specialists and general readers, more than 1,000 entries by 550 faculty, historians, and other authorities on Congress (including the historians of the House and Senate and scholars from the Congressional Research Service) describe and explain the history, functions, and relationships of Congress. First proposed by the late D.B. Hardeman (authority on American politics and former aide and biographer of Speaker Sam Rayburn), the work was supported by the Lyndon B. Johnson Foundation, the University of Texas, and the US Commission on the Bicentennial of the US Constitution. The alphabetically arranged entries cover such topics as "History of Congress"; "Congress" with several subheadings; committees; biographies of former members whose impact has been significant; the ethnic and gender composition of Congress throughout its history; Congress's record in important public policy areas such as civil rights, the environment, social welfare, and taxation; landmark laws; lobbying; women's issues; the 50 states; the Capitol building; and unique subjects such as the portrayal of Congress in literature, the movies, and comedy. Entries include useful tables of related legislation, individuals, etc., as well as illustrations and photographs, and each concludes with a short bibliography. A bibliographical guide, one of the subentries under "Congress," includes printed indexes, journals, books, CD-ROMS, on-line databases, and broadcast media such as C-SPAN but none of the new Internet sites such as GPO Access or Thomas. Finding aids include cross-references to related articles, a subject outline of the contents (but without page numbers), and a detailed index. The Constitution and a glossary of terms which do not have full-length entries are also appended. Coverage is more comprehensive than either Encyclopedia of the American Legislative System (CH, Nov'94) or Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress (4th ed, 1991). The former contains 91 longer analytical essays, also by academicians and historians (some of whom wrote portions of Encyclopedia of the U.S. Congress), on similar aspects of Congress as well as state legislatures. CQ's guide is drawn from staff reports in its Almanac and Weekly Report, is topically arranged, has only one volume, and generally takes a more factual approach. The alphabetical arrangement of more than 1,000 articles in Encyclopedia of the U.S. Congress can facilitate quick reference but requires frequent referral to cross-referenced entries in the other volumes and to the index. The topical outline in the last volume does not have page numbers, so one must use the index to locate articles. Although there is overlap among these three works, each contains unique material with different approaches.

Encyclopedia of U.S. Political HistoryWashington, D.C. : CQ Press, c2010. 7 volumes. Main Library   E183 .E53 2010 : Contents - v. 1. Colonial beginnings through Revolution, 1500 to 1783 / editor, Andrew W. Robertson -- v. 2. The early republic, 1784 to 1840 / editor, Michael A. Morrison -- v. 3. Expansion, division, and Reconstruction, 1841 to 1877 / editor, William G. Shade -- v. 4. From the gilded age through age of reform, 1878 to 1920 / editor, Robert D. Johnston -- v. 5. Prosperity, Depression, and war, 1921 to 1945 / editor, Robert H. Zieger -- v. 6. Postwar consensus to social unrest, 1946 to 1975 / editor, Thomas S. Langston -- v. 7. The clash of conservatism and liberalism : 1976 to present / editor, Richard M. Valelly.  Also available online.

Facts About the Presidents / Joseph Nathan Kane ; Janet Podell & Steven Anzovin [editors].  7th edition, 721pp.  Main Library E176.1 .K3 2001 : Includes a biographical chapter on each president, plus a statistical section with comparative information on such areas as religion, family histories, and education.

The Facts on File Dictionary of American Politics / Kathleen Thompson Hill and Gerald N. Hill.  New York : Checkmark Books, c2001.  436pp. Main Library JK9 .H54 2001 :  Covers influential individuals, organizations, ideologies, technical terms, historical references, and jargon associated with American politics.

Federal Agency Profiles for Students / Kelle S. Sisung, editor.  Detroit : GALE, c1999. 1070pp.  Main Library) JK421 .F42 1999 : Profiles 175 federal agencies (departments, bureaus, administrations, independent agencies, etc.). Each profile describes the agency and discusses the agency's "historical and political context." Most of the basic facts can be found elsewhere (e.g., in United States Government Manual), but Sisung gives additional information (e.g., number of employees, budget summary). Although the Manual briefly describes many more agencies, the coverage in greater depth found here will be useful to the intended audience of high school and undergraduate students. The entry for the National Security Council, for example, describes its mission, structure, primary functions, and programs; outlines its history (including several paragraphs on the Iran-Contra Affair) and current political issues (controversy over fund-raising during the 1996 presidential campaign); describes the agency's successes, failures, and future directions; and discusses briefly its resources and publications. The volume includes a brief bibliography, a chronology (Columbus to Clinton), a glossary, a subject index, and various diagrams ("Federal Government System of Checks and Balances," "How a Bill Becomes Law"). Agency profiles are arranged alphabetically. Recommended for libraries supporting introductory politics and civics courses.

A Glossary of Political Theory / John Hoffman.  Stanford, CA : Stanford Law and Politics, 2007. 204pp.  Main Library JA65 .H64 2007 : This essential reference covers alphabetically both the major concepts in political theory and the key writers in the field. While ensuring accuracy and objectivity, the entries represent interpretations that are both challenging and interesting....The premise underlying the book is that politics cannot be studied without theory, and for students, the more concrete and relevant the theory, the better. Presenting theory in an abstract fashion makes it daunting for students who can find it difficult to see the links between theory and practice. The definitions in this glossary therefore relate political ideas to political realities (i.e. everyday controversies) in an attempt to make them as lively, stimulating, and accessible as possible. Terms have been selected based upon the concepts most regularly used in teaching.

Guide to CongressWashington, D.C. : CQ Press, c2000.  5th edition, 2 volumes.  Main Library JK1021 .C56 2000 :  Volume I (23 chapters) contains core information on history, powers, and procedures, followed by an examination of pressures on Congress. Volume II (34 chapters) discusses housing and support, pay and perquisites, Congress and the electorate, and qualifications and conduct. It also contains reference materials that provide a myriad of factual details about the institution, members, and elections.

Guide to the Presidency / Michael Nelson, editor. 3rd edition, 2 volumes.  Main Library JK516 .C57 2002 : In two hefty volumes, this reference offers discussion of the origins, evolution, and contemporary workings of the presidency; biographies of every president through George W. Bush and of their vice presidents and a selection of first ladies; and ample reference materials—tables of electoral votes, listings of cabinet members, charts showing Gallup poll ratings, and excerpts from some 40 documents significant to the presidency, including speeches by Gore and George W. Bush ending the 2000 election controversy, and Bush's war on terrorism address.

Historical Dictionary of Human Rights and Humanitarian Organizations / Robert F. Gorman, Edward S. Mihalkanin.  Lanham, Md. : The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2007. 2nd edition, 403pp.  Main Library JC571 .G655 2007 : This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Human Rights and Humanitarian Organizations thoroughly revises the first edition, following major developments in human rights, including recent terrorism and international responses to it; the establishment of an international criminal court; the evolution of regional human rights bodies in Africa, Europe, and Latin America; and the proliferation of new nongovernmental organizations and foundations dedicated to the promotion of human rights worldwide. Robert F. Gorman and Edward S. Mihalkanin provide a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, photographs, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries covering key treaties, agreements, and definitions of human rights concepts; important humanitarian organizations - private, governmental, national, and international; and significant people and events. This assessment of the advances in protection of human rights and the extant major difficulties is an excellent tool for students, practitioners, and libraries.

Historical Dictionary of United States Intelligence / Michael A. Turner.  Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 2006.  291pp.  Main Library JK468.I6 T863 2006 : This compendium of over 500 entries on the most important and relevant personalities, programs, activities, and agencies of U.S. intelligence, beginning with the Sons of Liberty before the onset of the Revolutionary War until the most recent reorganization of the U.S. intelligence community, covers the myriad pieces of legislation that have governed the activities of U.S. intelligence. Each entry is cross-referenced for easy navigation and provides a definition as well as a brief but complete historical evaluation of the subject. This volume traces more than two centuries of history in the chronology. The introduction explains just what intelligence is and does, and shows how U.S. intelligence operations have evolved. Appendixes list Directors and Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence. The bibliography provides the most relevant and important sources for those interested in further reading.

Historical Encyclopedia of U.S. Presidential Use of Force, 1789-2000 / edited by Karl R. DeRouen, Jr.  Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2001.  313pp.  Main Library E176.1 .H56 2001 : Use of military force without a declaration of war has been a weapon in the arsenal of U.S. presidents for the last 200 years. Force has become an increasingly more (relevant) foreign policy action in the post-Cold War world. This comprehensive resource approaches the study of the use of force from several theoretical approaches: the historical record, which includes regional analyses of Latin America/the Caribbean, Europe, Asia, the Middle East/North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa; the data sets that focus on the use of force; the international level, which includes democratic peace, multilateralism, and Yugoslavia; domestic politics, which includes Congress, the media, and public opinion; executive-congressional relations, including political and constitutional issues; ethics; and theories of decision making on the use of force.

The Human Rights Encyclopedia / foreword by Aung San Suu Kyi ; editors James R. Lewis, Carl Skutsch. Armonk, N.Y. : Sharpe Reference, c2001  3 volumes.  Main Library JC571 .L523 2001 : Divided into two sections, the first covering human rights issues on a country by country basis, the second examining issues and individuals involved in human rights independent of nation, this three-volume set offers an overview of human rights and abuses thereof. Part one provides outlines of the history, society, and political make-up of 177 countries followed by details of the human rights problems there. Part two explore more thoroughly the issues of human rights, covering topics such as marriage and family, Native Americans, privacy, World Court, aging, anti- Semitism, and debt bondage. Appendices include texts of a variety of human rights documents and contact information for dozens of human rights organizations.

International Encyclopedia of Human Rights : Freedoms, Abuses, and Remedies / Robert L. Maddex.  Washington, DC : CQ Press, 2000.  404pp.  Main Library JC571 .M3334 2000 : Features articles on important concepts, documents, individuals, agencies, and organizations and their influence on civil rights.

The Oxford Handbook of American Elections and Political Behavior / edited by Jan E. Leighley.  Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2010. 778pp. Main Library JK1976 .O94 2010 : Offers comprehensive coverage of the various theoretical approaches to the study of American elections and political behavior. The chapters are thoughtful and creative, providing broad overviews of intellectual developments and challenges, as well as incisive commentary on the accomplishments of, and challenges facing, scholars of American politics. Substantively, the Handbook includes chapters focusing on various approaches and issues in research design, political participation, vote choice, presidential and non-presidential elections, and issues, interests and elites as influences on individuals' political behavior. Each of the chapters offers a working research bibliography, as well as retrospective evaluations of research and discussions of fruitful paths for future research....The Oxford Handbooks of American Politics is an eight-volume set of reference books offering authoritative and engaging critical overviews of the state of scholarship on American politics. Each volume focuses on a particular aspect of the field. The project is under the General Editorship of George C. Edwards III, and distinguished specialists in their respective fields edit each volume. The handbooks aim not just to report on the discipline, but also to shape it as scholars critically assess the current state of scholarship on a topic and propose directions in which it needs to move. The series is an indispensable reference for anyone working in American politics.

Political Handbook of the World.   Reference (1 East) JF37 .P6 (also available online) : Providing thorough and accurate information on more than 200 countries, Political Handbook of the World is the one-stop source for finding complete, authoritative facts and analysis on each country's governmental and political makeup. Political Handbook of the World is renowned for its extensive coverage of major, minor, and antisystemic political parties in each nation. It also includes cabinet members, key ambassadors, and international memberships of each country and profiles nearly 120 intergovernmental organizations.

Political Theory : An Encyclopedia of Contemporary and Classic Terms / Scott John Hammond.  Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, c2009.  357pp.  Main Library JA61 .P66 2009 : Liberty. Justice. Nature. Law. First formulated millennia ago by the founding philosophers of the Western tradition, these basic concepts of human thought remain central to our conception of ourselves, our place in the world, and our relationships with others - that is, our politics. Readers encountering such broad political concepts, their practical expressions in political movements and systems of government, the ideas of influential ancient and modern political thinkers - or simply familiar or unfamiliar catchphrases for which they would like a succinct yet informative explanation - will welcome this accessible encyclopedic guide. The major political concepts, themes, issues, movements, groups, and schools that have developed over time and shaped our modern world appear here in all their diversity, along with biographical entries and articles on the principal works of political theorists from Plato to John Rawls. Further, serious students and browsers alike will delight in the numerous entries on familiar quotations and political catchphrases, from the "banality of evil" and "Big Brother" to the "war of all against all."

The Presidency A to Z / Michael Nelson, advisory editor. Washington, D.C. : CQ Press, c2003. 3rd edition, 603pp.  Main Library JK511 .P775 2003 : Presents over 300 entries related to the United States presidency, including biographies of every president, election coverage and analysis, presidential policies and platforms, and presidential relations.

Presidential Administration Profiles for Students / Kelle S. Sisung, senior editor ; Gerda-Ann Raffaelle, editor.  Detroit : Gale Group, c2000.  687pp.  Main Library JK511 .P78 2000 : Examines the careers, campaigns, administrations, vice presidents, advisors, issues, and impact of American presidents from Washington through Clinton.

Presidential Facts : Topical Lists, Comparisons, and Statistics / Edward S. Skinner. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., c2006.  241pp.  Main Library E176.1 .S614 2006 : At 6'4", Abraham Lincoln was our tallest president. James Buchanan was the only president who never married. Ulysses was originally President Grant's middle name and the famous S was the result of an accidental switch. From George Washington to George Bush, these and other fascinating facts come to light through this examination of the men who have held the office of United States president. This reference book offers a special perspective on the 42 men who have served as the chief executive. From date of birth to place of death, 63 comparative lists present a plethora of presidential information. Organized in a loosely chronological manner, subjects discussed include presidential families, physical characteristics, religious preferences, previous occupations, election statistics and final quotes. Each list is headed by a title and organizational notes from the author. Information is limited to facts only (free from bias or judgment) and is arranged in a useful, easy-to-reference format.

The Presidents : A Reference History / Henry F. Graff, editor.  New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, c2002.  3rd edition, 817pp.  Main Library E176.1 .P918 2002 : Their presidents are a source of endless fascination for the American people. To some extent, television shows like The West Wing satisfy the need for more information about what goes on at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, but many Americans crave the facts, which this user-friendly volume satisfies. Now in its third edition (1st ed., CH, Sep'84; 2nd ed., Jan'97; both ed. by Graff, Columbia Univ.), this popular title incorporates several important additions including a full assessment of the Clinton presidency and an early appraisal of the G.W. Bush administration. This edition also includes an evaluation of the presidency as a whole written by Graff and a history of the White House by noted historian William Seale. The entries for each president have been reviewed for errors, and recent titles have been added to the bibliographies that end each entry. Three appendixes provide updated bibliographical, biographical, political, and historical data on the presidents and the presidency. This new edition remains a useful volume for academic and large public libraries.

The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History / editor, Michael Kazin ; associate editors, Rebecca Edwards, Adam Rothman ; advisors, Richard R. John ... [et al.].  Princeton : Princeton University Press, c2010.  2 vols. Main Library E183 .P85 2010 : An essential resource for anyone interested in U.S. history and politics, this two-volume encyclopedia covers the major forces that have shaped American politics from the founding to today. Broad in scope, the book addresses both the traditional topics of political history--such as eras, institutions, political parties, presidents, and founding documents--and the wider subjects of current scholarship, including military, electoral, and economic events, as well as social movements, popular culture, religion, education, race, gender, and more. Each article, specially commissioned for this book, goes beyond basic facts to provide readers with crucial context, expert analysis, and informed perspectives on the evolution of American politics. Written by more than 170 leading historians and social scientists, The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History gives students, scholars, and researchers authoritative introductions to the subject's most important topics and a first step to further research.Features 190 entries, organized alphabetically and written by a distinguished team of scholars, including Dean Baker, John Patrick Diggins, Lewis Gould, Alex Keyssar, James Kloppenberg, Patricia Nelson Limerick, Lisa McGirr, Mark Noll, Jack Rakove, Nick Salvatore, Stephen Skowronek, Jeremi Suri, and Julian Zelizer Describes key political periods and eras, from the founding to the present day Traces the history of political institutions, parties, and founding documents Explains ideas, philosophies, and movements that shaped American politics Presents the political history and influence of geographic regions Describes the roles of ethnic, racial, and religious groups in the political process Explores the influence of mass culture, from political cartoons to the Internet Examines recurring issues that shape political campaigns and policy, from class, gender, and race to crime, education, taxation, voting, welfare, and much more Includes bibliographies, cross-references, appendixes, a comprehensive index, and more than 50 illustrations and maps  

The Routledge Dictionary of Politics / David Robertson. London ; New York : Routledge, c2004. 3rd edition, 515pp.  Main Library JA61 .R63 2004 : Now in its third edition, this dictionary is the essential guide to politics; its terminologies, ideologies & institutions. Fully revised and expanded, it includes authoritative and up-to-date information that is invaluable to anyone concerned with politics or current affairs....It provides: over 500 extensive definitions; understanding of the basics of political thought and theory; clear coverage of complex ideologies and dogmas; succinct definitions of highly specialised and technical terms; and coverage of the latest emerging ideas and terminologies within political thought.

Routledge Handbook of American Foreign Policy / edited by Steven W. Hook, Christopher M. Jones.  New York : Routledge, 2012.  461pp.  JZ1480 .R69 2012 : No nation has maintained such an immense stature in world politics as the United States has since the Cold War's end. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks, prompting the global war on terrorism and the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, along with American economic and "soft power" primacy, there has been increased interest in and scrutiny of American foreign policy. The Routledge Handbook of American Foreign Policy brings together leading experts in the field to examine current trends in the way scholars study the history and theories of American conduct in the world, analysis of state and non-state actors and their tools in conducting policy, and the dynamics of a variety of pressing transnational challenges facing the United States.This volume provides a systematic overview of all aspects of American foreign policy and drives the agenda for further, cutting edge research. Contributors bring analytic depth and breadth to both the ways in which this subject is approached and the substance of policy formulation and process. The Handbook is an invaluable resource to students, researchers, scholars, and journalists trying to make sense of the broader debates in international relations.

Routledge Handbook of Global Citizenship Studies / Engin F. Isin, Peter Nyers.  London ; New York : Routledge, 2014.  On order : Citizenship studies is at a crucial moment of globalizing as a field. What used to be mainly a European, North American, and Australian field has now expanded to major contributions featuring scholarship from Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East....The Routledge Handbook of Global Citizenship Studies takes into account this globalizing moment. At the same time, it considers how the global perspective exposes the strains and discords in the concept of ‘citizenship’ as it is understood today. With over fifty contributions from international, interdisciplinary experts, the Handbook features state-of-the-art analyses of the practices and enactments of citizenship across broad continental regions (Africas, Americas, Asias and Europes) as well as deterritorialized forms of citizenship (Diasporicity and Indigeneity). Through these analyses, the Handbook provides a deeper understanding of citizenship in both empirical and theoretical terms....This volumesets a new agenda for scholarly investigations of citizenship. Its wide-ranging contributions and clear, accessible style make itessential reading for students and scholars working on citizenship issues across the humanities and social sciences....

Routledge Handbook of Public Policy / edited by Eduardo Araral ... [et al.].  London ; New York : Routledge, 2013.  528pp.  Main Library H97 .R68 2013  : This Handbook provides a comprehensive global survey of the policy process. Written by an outstanding line up of distinguished scholars and practitioners, the Handbook covers all aspects of the policy process including: (1) Theory – from rational choice to the new institutionalism; (2) Frameworks – network theory, advocacy coalition and development models; (3) Key stages in the process – Formulation, implementation and evaluation; (4) Agenda setting and decision making; (5) The roles of key actors and institutions.

U.S. Foreign Policy : A Documentary and Reference Guide / Akis Kalaitzidis.  Greenwood, 2011.  E183.7 .K3415 2011 Online : The study of historical primary documents provides a uniquely beneficial and insightful view into history. To that end, U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide presents and interprets important documents from throughout U.S. history, from the administration of George Washington to that of Barack Obama. Examining U.S. foreign policy through this lens identifies the ideals of the United States during different periods, illuminates the intent behind its military actions, and reveals how each American president interpreted his moral responsibilities as leader of one of the most powerful nations in the world....Organized to allow readers to examine the historical evolution of U.S. foreign policy, the book includes treaties, speeches, and other documents that illustrate important doctrines and decisions over the more than two centuries of American history, covering all presidential doctrines to the current administration. It also highlights various phases of foreign policy, from regionalism to westward expansion, from the Cold War to a New World Order. In addition to the documents themselves, the authors provide invaluable analysis and commentary that will help students understand what the documents mean—both in the context of their time, and in terms of their broader historical significance.

U.S. Presidents and Foreign Policy : From 1789 to the Present / Carl C. Hodge and Cathal J. Nolan, editors.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, c2007.  474pp.  Main Library E176.1 .U16 2007 : In chronological order by administration, provides the life and early career of each president of the United States before delving into a discussion of their foreign policy problems, solutions, and legacies.

U.S. Presidents Factbook / Elizabeth Jewell.  New York : Random House Reference, c2005.  488pp.  Main Library E176.1 .J49 2005 : Chronologically arranged, a comprehensive guide to each of the forty-three U.S. presidents furnishes biographical details about each president, the goals and challenges of each administration, notable appointments and major legislative acts, key successes and failures, and the major headlines and milestones that marked each presidential term through 2004.

World Encyclopedia of Political Systems and PartiesNew York : Facts On File, c2006.  3 volumes.  Main Library JF2011 .W67 2006 : Describes systems of government and their organization, opposition parties, and history for each of the world's nations.

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