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Primary sources in the sciences are different from primary sources in the humanities or social sciences. This guide describes the characteristics of primary sources in the sciences, provides examples of primary sources in the sciences, and describes how to best find science primary sources at the MSU Libraries.
If you need additional help locating primary sources in the sciences, please Ask A Librarian.
Primary Sources in the Sciences....
- Report original research, ideas, or scientific discoveries for the first time
- Report results/findings/data from experiments or research studies
- May also be referred to as primary research, primary articles, or research studies
- DO NOT include meta-analyses, systematic reviews, or literature reviews - these are secondary sources
- Are frequently found in peer-reviewed or scholarly journals
- Should explain the research methodology used (randomized controlled trial, etc)
- Frequently include methods, results, and discussion sections
- Are factual, not interpretive
- Research studies or scientific experiments
- Papers and proceedings from scientific conferences or meetings
- Dissertations and Theses
- Technical Reports
Avoid Secondary Sources
Most literature in scientific databases will be primary resources. However make sure to avoid meta-analyses, systematic reviews, or literature reviews - these are secondary sources. Examples of these secondary sources are:
- Publications about the significance of research or experiments
- Review of the results of several experiments or trials
- Analysis of a clinical trial
- Letters to the editor, editorials, perspectives, etc.
Finding Primary Sources in the Sciences
Listed below are resources at the MSU Libraries that will help you locate primary sources in the sciences. To find research studies or scientific experiments published in journals, you may want to search in one of the databases/indexes listed in this section. HINT: Many databases feature an advanced or limits section, which sometimes allow you to limit to publication type or research methodology (clinical trial, comparative study, etc).
Web of Science
Includes the Institute for Scientific Information Citation Indexes - Arts and Humanities, Social Science, and Science. It indexes science, social sciences, and arts and humanities information from nearly 9,300 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world.
MEDLINE is the National Library of Medicine's premier bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences.
Note: Beginning June 1, 2021, users of NCBI services will need to login with their MSU Net ID instead of a NCBI-generated account. The NLM has more information about this change and how to link your existing NCBI account with your MSU Net ID. A Microsoft Word document containing step by step instructions is avaialble for download.
CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO)
CINAHL is the online version of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. It provides indexing for over 3,000 nursing, allied health, biomedical, and consumer health journals. Additional items indexed include nursing dissertations, selected conference proceedings, standards of practice, educational software, audiovisuals, and book chapters. Evidence Based Care Sheets and Quick Lessons are also included.
CAB covers the subject of agriculture in the broadest sense. It includes: agronomy, biotechnology, crop protection, dairy science, economics, environmental degradation and remediation, forestry, genetics, herbicides, irrigation, leisure, recreation and tourism, microbiology, nutrition, parasitology, rural development, veterinary medicine and much more. Journals, monographs, conferences, books, annual reports and other sources from more than one country are scanned regularly for inclusion in the database.
GeoRef, produced by the American Geological Institute, indexes the world's literature in geology and the geosciences. Its over 1.7 million citations, many with abstracts, cover the geology of North America since 1785 and the geology of the rest of the world since 1933. It scans over 3,000 journals in 40 languages as well as books, maps, and reports. Most U.S. Geological Survey publications and many state geological surveys are indexed, as are U.S. and Canadian theses and dissertations.
SciFinder-n is the new interface for the classic version of SciFinder. If you have already registered for Classic SciFinder, that login should work for SciFinder-n.