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Native American Studies Research Guide: Reference Tools

Reference Tools

Reference books include dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, directories, manuals, handbooks, and much more. Reference books can help you

  1. explore a topic (find out what has been said about a topic, trends, issues, etc.
  2. identify unfamiliar terms or people in your reading
  3. find references to other books and articles on the topic, and
  4. find keywords to use in online searches.

This page pulls together a sample of both electronic and print reference tools.

Term Paper Guide

Term Paper Resource Guide to American Indian History / Patrick Russell LeBeau.  Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2009.  376pp.  Main Library and MSU Faculty Collection E76.6 .L334 2009 : Major help for American Indian History term papers has arrived to enrich and stimulate students in challenging and enjoyable ways. Students from high school age to undergraduate will be able to get a jump start on assignments with the hundreds of term paper projects and research information offered here in an easy-to-use format. Users can quickly choose from the 100 important events, spanning from the first Indian contact with European explorers in 1535 to the Native American Languages Act of 1990. Coverage includes Indian wars and treaties, acts and Supreme Court decisions, to founding of Indian newspapers and activist groups, and key cultural events. Each event entry begins with a brief summary to pique interest and then offers original and thought-provoking term paper ideas in both standard and alternative formats that often incorporate the latest in electronic media, such as iPod and iMovie. The best in primary and secondary sources for further research are then annotated, followed by vetted, stable Web site suggestions and multimedia resources, usually films, for further viewing and listening. Librarians and faculty will want to use this as well.  The table of contents itemizes the 100 different paper topics covered.

Term Paper Resource Guide to American Indian History

Annotated Reading Lists from Oxford Bibliographies Online

Native American Histories in North America by Susan Sleeper-Smith.

  • General Overviews
  • Race
  • Slavery
  • Warfare and Warriors

Native American Religions by David J. Silverman.

  • General Overviews
  • South and Central American Traditions
  • North American Moundbuilders
  • The Pueblo Indians and Their Predecessors
  • Farmers of the East
  • Hunter-Gatherers
  • Religion and Revitalization
  • Religion and Trade

Native Americans and the Atlantic World by James Taylor Carson

  • General Overviews
  • Introductory Texts
  • Bibliographies
  • Research Methodologies
  • Columbian Exchange
  • Trade
  • Slavery
  • The Caribbean
  • Mexico
  • Northeastern North America
  • Southeastern North America
  • North American Interior

Native Americans in Europe by Carina Johnson

  • General Overviews
  • Bibliographies and Reference Works
  • Case Studies
  • Elite Emigration
  • Slavery and Labor
  • Materiality
  • Spectacle and Musical Performance
  • Native American Bodies and Science

Indigenous Archaeology by George P. Nicholas

Native American and Aborigional Canadian Childhood by Robert Benson.

Indigenous Populations in North America, Australasia, and Circumpolar North by Kue Young.

Native American Oral Literatures by Timothy Powell.

Book Covers

Encyclopedia of American Indian contributions to the world : 15,000 years of inventions and innovations

Encyclopedia of American Indian contributions to the world : 15,000 years of inventions and innovations

Encyclopedia of American Indian History

Encyclopedia of American Indian History

Encyclopedia of American Indian issues today

Encyclopedia of American Indian issues today

Encyclopedia of American Indian removal

Encyclopedia of American Indian removal

Encyclopedia of Native American History

Encyclopedia of Native American History

Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes.

Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes

Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes.

Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes

Encyclopedia of American Indian Wars, 1492-1890

Encyclopedia of American Indian Wars, 1492-1890

Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare

Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare

Encyclopedia of North American Indian tribes : a comprehensive study of tribes from the Abitibi to the Zuni

Encyclopedia of North American Indian tribes : a comprehensive study of tribes
 from the Abitibi to the Zuni

The encyclopedia of North American Indian wars, 1607-1890 : a political, social, and military history

The encyclopedia of North American Indian wars, 1607-1890 : a political, social, and military history

Atlas of the North American Indian

Atlas of the North American Indian

Chronology of American Indian History

Chronology of American Indian History

A Companion to American Indian History

A Companion to American Indian History

The ABC-CLIO Companion to the Native American Rights Movement

ABC-CLIO Companion to the Native American Rights Movement

Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements

Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements

Native America in the Twentieth Century

Native America in the Twentieth Century

The Praeger Handbook on Contemporary Issues in Native America

The Praeger Handbook on Contemporary Issues in Native America

American Indian Religious Traditions : an Encyclopedia

American Indian Religious Traditions : an Encyclopedia

The Cambridge companion to Native American literature

The Cambridge companion to Native American literature

Encyclopedia of Native American Artists

Encyclopedia of Native American Artists

Encyclopedia of American Indian Costume

Encyclopedia of American Indian Costume

Encyclopedia of American Indian Literature

Encyclopedia of American Indian Literature

Encyclopedia of United States Indian Policy and Law

Encyclopedia of United States Indian Policy and Law

Treaties with American Indians : an Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty

Treaties with American Indians : an Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty

American Indian Studies : a Bibliographic Guide

American Indian Studies : a Bibliographic Guide


Native Peoples A to Z: A Reference Guide to Native Peoples of the Western Hemisphere (2nd edition, online)

American Indian Studies : a Bibliographic Guide

Basic Reference Tools (Online)

If you don't know where to start, you may want to try one of the following online compilations of reference tools:

Gale Virtual Reference Library ; Includes encyclopedic articles on historical and contemporary Natie American research topics.  Note:  you may have to click on this resource more than once since Gale products don't always connect on the first couple of tries.

Oxford Reference Online ; Contains online versions of dictionaries and encyclopedias previously published in paper by the Oxford University Press.

Sage Reference Online : Includes numerous encyclopedias and handbooks, primarily in the Social Sciences.

Recommended Reference Tools

American Mosaic : American Indian Experience (Online Portal) / ABC-CLIO.  A digital resource that illuminates the histories and contemporary cultures of the Native peoples of North America....Before European colonialists arrived on the continent, Native societies were stewards of the North American landscape, living in complex cultural and political structures. Many of these societies and their cultural and political systems have influenced the span of nations they encompass in many tangible ways, from the U.S. Constitution and simple place names to fashion and spirituality. Nonetheless, the history of Native peoples of North America remains a mystery to many....Understanding the Native peoples of North America is important to better comprehend not only our shared history but also that which came before. Without a comprehensive appreciation of the Native American experience over the last half millennium, it is impossible to truly grasp the identity of our shared continent....The American Mosaic: The American Indian Experience is an online collection featuring reference content, hundreds of primary documents, and thousands of images. The Analyze sections pose historic quandaries that invite learners to examine issues from all angles and develop their critical thinking skills, while easy-to-use search and browse features facilitate research at every level. From precontact to the colonial era into the 21st century, and from the Inuit of Alaska to the Seminole of Florida, AIE is an indispensable electronic research and learning resource....The Academic database includes a feature titled "Idea Exchange." This collection of peer-reviewed articles presents multiple perspectives on core topics and is designed to encourage deeper scholarly exploration and discussion. The articles serve as models of well-constructed argumentative essays. And, they are citable for college- and university-level research papers. Users will find current MLA 7th edition, Chicago 15th ed., and APA 6th edition citation options to help simplify the bibliographic process.

American Indian Culture / Carole Barrett. Salem Press, 2004. 3 volumes.  Main Library E98.S7 A44 2004 : Every essay in this set addresses a cultural phenomenon characteristic of the indigenous peoples of North America. The entries cover the range of culture from lifeways, religious rituals, and material culture to art forms and modern social phenomena. Twenty separate essays cover both "Architecture" and "Arts and Crafts" in the ten North American culture areas: the Arctic, California, the Great Basin, the Northeast, the Northwest Coast, the Plains, the Plateau, the Southeast, the Southwest, and the Subarctic. In other entries, students will find everything from brief discussions of the importance of acorns or wild rice to a survey of agriculture; from a history of the atlatl to an essay on weapons in general; from entries on major dance forms to overviews of religions. Although the emphasis is on the traditional cultural heritage of North American indigenous peoples, modern social trends are surveyed and analyzed as well.

American Indian History Day by Day : A Reference Guide to Events.  Roger M. Carpenter.  Santa Barbara, CA : Greenwood, 2012.  429pp.  E77 .C29 2012  Online : A reference toevents in American Indian history spanning the past 500 years. The guide, primarily intended for students, covers less well-known and misinterpreted events as well as those more familiar occurrences pertaining to interactions with European explorers and colonists, Indian and American government policy, and contemporary events. Entries include descriptions of the events as well as books and Web sites that offer additional related information.  

American Indian Quotations / compiled and edited by Howard J. Langer.  Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1996.  260pp.  Main Library PN6081.4 .A43 1996 : The first book of American Indian quotations, this volume offers 800 quotations covering more than four centuries of American life. Arranged chronologically, the quotations include the words of warriors, poets, politicians, doctors, lawyers, athletes, and others. Putting real people into the tragedy that has been the story of Indian life, the book includes quotes not only about historic incidents, but also of Indian views on education, values, ecology, family, and religion. The book provides brief biographical information about those quoted, including both historical and contemporary figures, and cross-references the material through subject, author, and tribal indexes.

American Indian Tribes / edited by the editors of Salem Press ; project editor, R. Kent Rasmussen.  Pasadena, Calif. : Salem Press, c2000.  2 vols. Main Library E77 .A53 2000 : This two-volume treatment of American Indian tribes is organized into two parts: "Culture Areas" and "Tribes and Traditions." The first part is further divided into ten distinct and well-organized thematic essays on regions that include the Arctic, California, Great Basin, Northeast, Northwest Coast, Plains, Plateau, Southeast, Southwest, and the Subarctic. Each essay presents the language groups and tribes of the region in question and a variety of subtopics, such as environment, material culture, art and architecture, linguistic history, postcontact changes, and regional prehistory. The essays, which reflect the diversity of each region, are well written, clear, and concise. The "Tribes and Traditions" section, which takes up the second half of Volume 1 and all of Volume 2, covers every group, from the Abenaki to the Zapotec, including precontact groups, such as the Hohokam or Hopewell. Each tribe and tradition is accompanied by information on culture-area affiliation, language group, primary location, and population size (using the 1990 U.S. Census or other estimates). Brief discussion is given to subsistence patterns, material culture, post-contact changes, prehistory, religion, and history.

American Indians / consulting editor, Harvey Markowitz.  Pasadena, Calif. : Salem Press, c1995.  3 vols.  Main Library E76.2 .A45 1995 : An alphabetical reference that covers a wide range of North American Indian topics--including personages, tribes, organizations, historical events, cultural traditions, and contemporary issues--for general readers and students. The 1,129 articles range in length from 200 to 3,000 words. Each article begins with ready reference information. Articles of more than 1,000 words conclude with a bibliography; the bibliographies of articles 2,000 words or longer include annotations. Where appropriate, articles are illustrated with photographs, maps, charts, tables, and drawings. 

Atlas of the North American Indian.  Checkmark Books.  Main Library G1106.E1 W3 2009 :  Content is arranged in seven chapters, including "Ancient Indians," "Indian Lifeways," and "Contemporary Indians." The largest single section, "Indian Wars," covers the early conflicts of the Arawal (1492) through the Canadian Indian Wars in the 1870s. Each chapter is broken down into sections discussing culture, events, tribes, and individuals. Appendixes provide a chronology of prehistory and history; listings of Indian Nations; Indian place-names; and a directory of museums, historical societies, and archaeological sites. A glossary, bibliography, and index complete the volume. Canadian coverage is better than in many similar works. Several chapters have sections specific to Canada, an appendix is devoted to contemporary Canadian First Nations, and other appendixes include Canada in their listings. This book is recommended for collections needing general information, historical coverage, and material on the Canadian region.

Chronology of American Indian History.  Facts on File. Main Library E77.S72 S66 2007 : A valuable resource for students, teachers, and librarians, this updated edition presents a time line of Native North American life, history, and culture from around 25,000 BCE to 2006. Approximately 1,500 brief entries highlight significant events in 11 chapters, starting with "Before 1492" and ending with a new chapter, "2000 to the Present." Topics include origins and early migration patterns of Indians into North America; all major wars, battles, and conflicts; federal Indian policies; resettlement issues and life on reservations; Indian participation in the world wars, American film, and government; the Indian Rights movement and political organization; advances made in education; the legal status and health of Indian populations; and Native American art, religion, music, and literature. Black-and-white photos, a map, and sidebars with quotes by famous Indians and non-Indians add further interest. A glossary, a list of works discussed in the entries, a bibliography, and an index complete the work. Not intended as a stand-alone, this title would work best when used in conjunction with other resources like The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes (1998) and Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes (2006)  

Encyclopedia of American Indian Contributions to the World : 15,000 years of inventions and innovations.  Facts on File.  Main Library E54.5 .K46 2002 : This reference contains alphabetically arranged entries on the contributions of Native Americans to the world's common fund of knowledge. These contributions are in a variety of areas such as medicine, food preservation, military strategy, architecture, science, language, and government. Topics include, for example, the cultivation of potatoes, xeriscaping for water conservation, home insulation, the medicinal use of ipecac, and flintknapping. The text is accompanied by b&w photographs and other illustrations.

Encyclopedia of American Indian History.  ABC-Clio. Reference (1 Center) E77 .E48 2008. : "This thematically organized encyclopedia includes approximately 450 entries in 4 volumes ... that range from precontact ... to contemporary issues of tribal recognition, gaming, and water rights, with a focus on postcontact times."

Encyclopedia of American Indian Issues Today  / Russell M. Lawson.  Santa Barbara, CA : Greenwood, 2013.  E76.2 .E527 2013 Online : This two-volume encyclopedia set presents 85 essays on American Indian issues in recent decades. The entries are organized thematically into ten sections on peoples and places; economy and work; learning, literacy and languages; health of body and mind in private and public spheres; Indian identity, spirituality, traditional and modern thought; sovereignty and dependence; law, politics and conflict; American Indian art and media; environmental concerns; and a final section on Canadian Indians and other aboriginal peoples. The entries are 5-15 pages long. Topics include kinship structures, women's identity and power, unemployment, deaf Native Americans, racial stereotyping in mascots, controversy over ownership of artifacts, Indian sovereignty, political activism, media made by Indians, tribal land use and preserving habitats, biocolonialism, and worldwide indigenous activism. The contributors come from North America, Europe and New Zealand. They include independent scholars, attorneys, and professors of history, sociology, English, religious studies, and Native American studies.

Encyclopedia of the American Indian Movement / Bruce E. Johansen.  Santa Barbara : Greenwood, c2013.  362pp.  Main Library E98.T77 J63 2013   (Online version coming soon): Accessible to general readers, this reference provides entries on key figures, occupations, protests, political murders, and landmark court decisions related to the American Indian Movement. There are also entries on American Indian Movement chapters, publications, and documents, as well as mainstream politicians and major issues such as fishing rights. Each entry also offers a list of further reading. The book includes a chronology and b&w photos.

Encyclopedia of American Indian Removal / Daniel F. Littlefield Jr. and James W. Parins, Editors.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : Greenwood, c2011.  2 volumes.  Main Library E98.R4 E63 2011 : This work is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Indian removal that accurately presents the removal process as a political, economic, and tribally complicit affair.

Encyclopedia of Michigan Indians : Tribes, Nations and People of the Northern Woodlands.  St. Clair Shores, Mich. : Somerset, c1998-  2 vols.  Reference (1 Center) E78.M6 E58 1998 : This work contains articles on tribes and biographies of famous Indians of the state. Daily Life articles are included to fully understand the history and culture of the American Indians of the state. November is National American Indian History Month and readers will be searching for books on Indians of the state and this publication will provide the readers with answers to the most frequently asked questions on Indians of the state.

Encyclopedia of Native American History / Peter C. Mancall, editor.  New York, NY : Facts On File, c2011.  3 volumes. Main Library  E77 .M265 2011 : European explorers reached North America more than 400 years ago, and since that time Native Americans have had to struggle to survive. Yet, despite injustices both past and present, the Native American community has persevered over the centuries.  The new, three-volume Encyclopedia of Native American History offers a comprehensive and authoritative look at the most important individuals, events, and topics in American Indian history. Researchers and students alike will benefit from the in-depth coverage of tribes, notable leaders and events, customs, dress, dwellings, weapons, government, religion, and more. Covering the period from the first human settlements in the Americas to the present day, this set features black-and-white photographs, an insert of full-color maps, an appendix, and cross-references. Written for high school and college students as well as the general public, this resource will be invaluable to anyone interested in learning about this fascinating topic.

Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes.  Facts on File. Main Library E76.2 .W35 2006 : A comprehensive, accessible guide to more than 150 North American Indian nations. Organized alphabetically by tribe or group, the book summarizes the historical record—such as locations, migrations, contacts with non-Indians, wars—and includes present-day tribal status. Readers will get a brief look at traditional Indian lifeways, including language, families, clothing, houses, boats, tools, arts, legends, and rituals. This revised edition features: (1) Important developments in Indian political issues and cultural affairs; (2) Increased coverage of prehistoric Indians as well as Mesoamerican civilizations; (3) Emerging casinos in the 1990s, such as Foxwoods in the Pequot reservation in Connecticut; (4) Recent activism, such as demonstrations at Plymouth, Massachusetts and the blockade at the Oka and Kahnawake reserves near Montreal; (5) The use of native names again by certain tribes, such as the Inuit, rather than those applied by non-Indians.  Note: 1988 edition available in Main Library

Encyclopedia of Native North America / Rayna Green with Melanie Fernandez.  Bloomington : Indiana University Press ; London : British Museum Press, 1999.  213pp.  Main Library E76.2 .G74 1999 : Green (director of the American Indian Program, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution) and Fernandez (acting First Nations officer at the Ontario Arts Council) present about 200 alphabetically-arranged entries that illuminate how indigenous North Americans lived in the past and how they live now. Together with a wealth of stories, songs, and first-hand renderings of events, they include biographies of leaders, accounts of social problems, explanations of ceremonials, and descriptions of origin stories. Although most of the artifacts portrayed come from the British Museum, they are supplemented with other important examples from American collections.

Encyclopedia of Native Tribes of North America /  Michael Johnson.  Firefly Books.  2nd edition, 336pp.  Oversize Collection (3 West)   E76.2 .J62 2014 : A delight both to the eye and pocketbook. Arranged by cultural and geographical area (e.g., "Northeastern Woodlands," "Southwest"), the volume contains brief entries on tribes, confederacies, and other groups. A chart at the beginning of each geographical-cultural section lists the various language families and tribes.  The indexing, greatly improved over that of the 1999 edition, includes tribe names, illustrations, and maps; and the cross-referencing between entries is also greatly improved. Appendixes list the powwow trails, museums, Native American tribes by populations, locations of reservations by state, and principal tribes. The expanded glossary is greatly enhanced by having the photographic examples in place with the alphabetic entry. The quality of illustrations and photographs is excellent and is indeed the most improved part of the book. The arrangement may prove off-putting or difficult for those persons with only a rudimentary understanding of the cultural structure of Native American tribes; however, with the improved indexing, this seems a minimal problem and actually adds to learning for the reader. The bibliography has been updated, and a new section on museums includes information about the newest addition to the Smithsonian museums—the National Museum of the American Indian. The section "The Indian Today" has been expanded, and the section on "Native Populations" has been updated to reflect 2001 census data. 

The encyclopedia of North American colonial conflicts to 1775  : a political, social, and military history / Spencer C. Tucker, volume editor ; James Arnold and Roberta Wiener, editors, documents volume ; Paul G. Pierpaoli, Jr., associate editor ; Justin Murphy, Jim Piecuch, assistant editors.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, c2008.  3 volumes (1188pp.)  E181 .E6315 2008 Online  : Arranged alphabetically, the articles of this 3-volume reference chronicle the many conflicts that occurred in what would become the US before the Declaration of Independence. Articles are included on conflicts, notable figures, and locales. Many of the articles are on Native American tribes and notable Native Americans. Each article is signed and includes a list of cross references and short bibliography. V.3 is devoted to primary documents, including letters, ordinances, reports, charters, and treaties, many of them excerpted. Among the documents included are John White's account of the disappearance of the inhabitants of Roanoke Island, Don Juan de Oñate's 1599 letter from New Mexico, the English Bill of Rights, and King George II's 1755 war speech to Parliament. This is a thoughtful and thorough resource that will be of interest to high school and undergraduate students and the general reader.

Encyclopedia of North American Indian tribes : a comprehensive study of tribes from the Abitibi to the Zuni / Bill Yenne.  Greenwich, CT : Brompton, c1986.  191pp.  Oversize Collection (Center, Basement) E76.2 .Y46 1986

Encyclopedia of North American Indians (online). Also available online via Academic OneFile.   Print copy available  : Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, c1996.  756pp.  Main Library E76.2 .E53 1996 :  This encyclopedia contains signed entries by 260 authors and numerous unsigned entries by about two dozen other authors. There are four types of entries. First, there are descriptions of 100 tribes--the editor tried to provide coverage of all major contemporary groups. These entries are supplemented with "regional entries" that discuss smaller native communities. There are five entries on the major languages (Lakota, Navajo, Cherokee, Cree, Ojibwa) and four on the major language groups (Algonquian, Iroquoian, Pueblo, and Salishan). Secondly, there are biographies of 100 prominent deceased Native Americans. The biographees are political figures, athletes, artists, and scholars. Next, there are 100 interpretive articles on topics such as beadwork, dreams, and treaties. Finally, brief entries provide definitions of topics such as peyote, cradle boards, or the Battle of Little Big Horn. Many of the longer entries include a two-to three-item bibliography. The entry Bibliographies by Velma Salabiye (Navajo) gives a broad overview of scholarship in the field. Black-and-white maps and photographs (most of them historical) add interest to the text. A detailed index aids access. 

Ethnic groups of the Americas : an encyclopedia / James B. Minahan.  Santa Barbara, California : ABC-CLIO, [2013].  411pp.  Main Library E49 M56 2013 : Combining up-to-date information with extensive historical and cultural background, the encyclopedia covers approximately 150 groups arranged alphabetically. Each engaging entry offers a short introduction detailing names, population estimates, language, and religion. This is followed by a history of the group through the turn of the 19th century, with background on societal organization and culture and expanded information on language and religious beliefs. The last section of each entry discusses the group in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, including information on its present situation. Readers will also learn about demographic trends and major population centers, parallels with other groups, typical ways of life, and relations with neighbors. Major events and notable challenges are documented, as are key figures who played a significant political or cultural role in the group's history. Each entry also provides a list for further reading and research.

Gale Encyclopedia of Native American TribesGale.  Main Library E77 .G15 1998  :  Although there have been a number of recent reference titles on the history and culture of Native Americans, Gale's encyclopedia offers exceptional scope, clarity, and content. Covering almost 400 North American tribes, each essay contains information on both the historical and contemporary issues for the tribe. All entries begin with an introduction about the tribal roots, historic and current location, population data, and language family. This is followed by segments covering the history, religious beliefs, language, buildings, means of subsistence, clothing, healing practices, customs, oral literature, and current tribal issues. Several black-and-white illustrations and bibliographies for further research are included. A cumulative index of tribes, relevant nonnative peoples, historic dates and battles, treaties, legislation, associations, and religious groups adds value". 

Handbook of North American Indians.  Smithsonian Institution.  Reference and Main Library E76.2 .H36; also available in Government Documents Library (3 West), U.S. Documents Collection SI 1.20/2:  -  20 volumes are planned in this comprehensive study of the Indians of North America. For more information about each volume, click here.

A Native American Encyclopedia : History, Culture, and Peoples / Barry M. Pritzker.   Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press , 2000.  591pp.  Main Library E76.2 .P75 1998 : Dispelling myths, answering questions, and stimulating thoughtful avenues for further inquiry, this highly absorbing reference provides a wealth of specific information about over 200 North American Indian groups in Canada and the United States. Readers will easily access important historical and contemporary facts about everything from notable leaders and relations with non-natives to customs, dress, dwellings, weapons, government, and religion. This book is at once exhaustive and captivating, covering myriad aspects of a people spread across a continent....Divided into ten geographic areas for easy reference, this work illustrates each Native American group in careful detail. Listed alphabetically, starting with the tribal name, translation, origin, and definition, each entry includes significant facts about the group's location and population, as well as impressive accounts of the group's history and culture. Bringing entries up-to-date, Barry Pritzker also presents current information on each group's government, economy, legal status, and land holdings. Whether interpreting the term "tribe" (many traditional Native American groups were not tribes at all but more like extended families) or describing how a Shoshone woman served as a guide on the Lewis and Clark expedition, Pritzker always presents the material in a clear and lively manner....In light of past and ongoing injustices and the momentum of Indian and Inuit self-determination movements, an understanding of Native American cultures as well as their contributions to contemporary society becomes increasingly important. A magnificent resource, this book liberally provides the essential information necessary to better grasp the history and cultures of North American Indians.

Supplemental Reference Works

Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas.  Cambridge, England ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1996-2000.  Main Library E77 .N62 1996 | Also available electronically via Cambridge Histories Online : v. 1. North America / edited by Bruce G. Trigger, Wilcomb E. Washburn (2 v.) -- v. 2. Mesoamerica / edited by Richard E.W. Adams, Murdo J. MacLeod (2 v.) -- v. 3. South America / edited by Frank Saloman, Stuart B. Schwartz (2 v.). In this wide-ranging history of the Native peoples of North America from prehistory to the present, edited by a Canadian archaeologist and a former historian with the Smithsonian, a variety of authors present a huge amount of information in a very concise format. Chapters are both thematic ("Native peoples in Euro-American historiography") and regional ("the Arctic from Norse contact to modern times"). Where experts have differing opinions, such as the earliest dates for Native peoples in the Americas or the population of North America in 1492, authors explain their positions and refer readers to other points of view through discussion and footnotes. 

The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Great PlainsColumbia University Press.  284pp.  Main Library E78 .G73 F69 2003 | Also available electronically : The image of the Plains Indian astride his horse wearing a full-feathered chief's bonnet has always captured the imagination of non-Indians, especially Europeans. Often little attention was paid to the diversity of cultures, tribal affiliations, and the effect of forced displacement on the reshaping of inter- and intratribal loyalties. This third volume in a series of six by Columbia University is an exceptionally concise, scholarly, and very inclusive historical look into the changes that took place in the "traditional" Plains Indian cultures. The first five chapters encompass prewhite contact and are followed by chapters on the intrusion of treaties, broken treaties, politics, new diseases, government agencies, warfare between non-Indians and Indians, ethnocentricity, and the utter voraciousness for land by European settlers. The 50-page section "People, Places and Events" is an encyclopedic presentation of materials used in the text. The book includes a historical chronology, and the 52-page bibliography and other resources by category and tribal affiliation attest to the extensive works available to those interested in one or more specific tribes.

The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Northeast.   Columbia University Press.  292pp.  Main Library E78 .E2 B73 2001 | Also available electronicallyThe northeastern US was and continues to be home to a variety of Native American groups, many of whom have been intensively and extensively studied by scholars in a variety of disciplines. Bragdon (anthropology, College of William and Mary) summarizes the histories and cultures of the Native peoples of the northeast woodlands. Part I, "Overview," synthesizes an enormous body of scholarship in only 85 pages. Its list of references constitutes a fine bibliography of significant literature. Chapter 1 includes an excellent ecological, linguistic, historical, prehistorical, economic, and cultural introduction to the region in general, and to its specific Iroquoian and Algonquian peoples. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 cover European entry, frontier expansion, and 1850 to the present. The second part is an encyclopedia-like alphabetic listing of groups, nations, persons, places, and events in northeastern Native history. It is packed with interesting and important entries, but its brevity induces a certain arbitrariness. There is, for example, an entry on praying towns, but none on Moravian missions. Part III is a historical time line, and Part IV, "Resource Guide," points the reader to information and sources arranged by topic and format. Photos and maps round out this resource.

The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the SoutheastColumbia University Press.  325pp.  Main Library  E78 .S65 P45 2001 | Also available electronically : Perdue and Green (history and American studies, Univ. of North Carolina, and authors of numerous books about Native Americans), divide their book into four sections: "History and Culture"; "People, Places and Events A-Z"; "Chronology"; and "Resources." The first section provides a brief history of the southeast tribes, including approaches to scholarship and changes in research methods concerning Native Americans. It defines the Southeast tribes and places them in historical context, 8000 BCE to the present, including the problems created by European migration and the wars for empire. This section also critically discusses the southeast civilization and removal, life in the west, and life for those who remained in the east. Section two lists people, places, and events in greater detail. The brief chronology covers 75,000 BCE-1996. The resources section provides a great variety of information: addresses of agencies that administer Indian affairs, tribes recognized by federal or state agencies, tribes requesting changes in status, bibliography and finding aids including printed primary sources, oral histories, archaeological studies, general studies, museums, and files, films, and Internet resources. The book includes maps, pictures, and table of contents.

The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Southwest / Trudy Griffin-Pierce.  New York : Columbia University Press, c2010.  284pp.  Main Library E78 .S7 G75 2010 | Also available electronically : A major work on the history and culture of Southwest Indians, The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Southwest tells a remarkable story of cultural continuity in the face of migration, displacement, violence, and loss. The Native peoples of the American Southwest are a unique group, for while the arrival of Europeans forced many Native Americans to leave their land behind, those who lived in the Southwest held their ground. Many still reside in their ancestral homes, and their oral histories, social practices, and material artifacts provide revelatory insight into the history of the region and the country as a whole....Trudy Griffin-Pierce incorporates her lifelong passion for the people of the Southwest, especially the Navajo, into an absorbing narrative of pre-and postcontact Native experiences. She finds that, even though the policies of the U.S. government were meant to promote assimilation. Native peoples formed their own response to outside pressures, choosing to adapt rather than submit to external change. Griflin-Pierce provides a chronology of instances that have shaped present-day conditions in the region, as well as an extensive glossary of significant people, places, and events. Setting a precedent for ethical scholarship, she describes different methods for researching the Southwest and cites sources for further archaeological and comparative study. Completing the volume is a selection of key primary documents, literary works, films, Internet resources, and contact information for each Native community, enabling a more thorough investigation into specific tribes and nations.

A Companion to American Indian History / edited by Philip J. Deloria and Neal Salisbury.  Malden, Mass. : Blackwell, 2002. 513pp.  Main Library  E77 .C74 2002  | Also available electronically : Provides 25 original essays by both Native American and non-Native American authors. Separate chapters discuss demography, religion, kinship, warfare, languages, art, literature, labor, environment, gender, racial identity, captivity, cultural brokerage, education, law, and tribal sovereignty, among other topics. The essays go beyond a mere listing of sources to intelligently integrate shifts in interpretation over time and to indicate weaknesses in the existing canon of knowledge. Academic researchers, general readers, and members of Native American communities can all profit from these sophisticated essays. This is especially true in the latter case because most of the selections offer insights into cultural revivalism and affirmation of sovereignty in today's world. Specialized topical bibliographies follow each chapter, and a more comprehensive 19-page bibliography concludes the book.

A Companion to the Anthropology of American Indians / Thomas Biolsi.  Malden, Mass : Blackwell Publishing, 2004.  Main Library E76.6 .C66 2004 (Also available online): 27 original contributions by leading scholars in the field and summarizes the state of anthropological knowledge of Indian peoples, as well as the history that got us to this point. (1) Surveys the full range of American Indian anthropology: from ecological and political-economic questions to topics concerning religion, language, and expressive culture. (2) Each chapter provides definitive coverage of its topic, as well as situating ethnographic and ethnohistorical data into larger frameworks. (3) Explores anthropology's contribution to knowledge, its historic and ongoing complicities with colonialism, and its political and ethical obligations toward the people 'studied'

The Native North American Almanac.  Gale.  Main Library E77 .N37 2001 :  Editor Champagne, the director of UCLA's American Indian Studies Center, was aided by a staff of over 70 specialist editors and contributing authors in compiling this almanac. The Almanac's 17 chapters cover such topics as culture areas, religion, arts, health, education, economy, languages, and legislation, plus a chronology from 11,000 B.C. through the early 1990s and biographies of prominent Native North Americans. The latter part of each chapter covers Canadian aboriginals. Numerous photos depict a wide variety of American Indian activities, with charts, maps, listings by state, and subtopical bibliographies rounding out each chapter. A glossary, general bibliography, and 35-page index further aid the reader. Recommended as a general source for ready reference answers and as an authoritative overview on the topics. 

Encyclopedia of American Indian Wars, 1492-1890.  ABC-Clio.  278pp.  Main Library E81 .K44 1997 : When thinking of Indian wars, images of John Wayne movies flash in the minds of most people, but the conflicts between European Americans and native people go back much further in time. The entries cover most battles, wars, individuals, tribes/groups, countries, and concepts. Most entries are less than a page, but longer ones include Revolutionary War (three pages) and Yakima-Rogue War (two and a half pages). Conflicts covered range from the Battle of Mabila (1540) to the Wounded Knee massacre (1890). Biographical entries include Native Americans from Pocahontas and Powhatan to Geronimo. Entries for various pioneers, government officials, and officers include Edward Braddock, commander-in-chief of British forces in America during the French and Indian War; Simon Girty, a former Indian captive who acted as a scout for the British during the Revolution; and Nelson Miles, who waged war against the Nez Perce and the Apaches. There are entries for tribes, such as the Cherokee. Other entries include those for forts, policies, treaties, and weapons. Entries close with see also references and suggested readings, when appropriate. Full citations for the suggested readings are provided in the nine-page bibliography. There are black-and-white illustrations scattered throughout.

Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare. Facts on File. Main Library E81 .E98 2005 : More than 600 entries provide access to information about the persons, tribes, treaties, battles, places, weaponry, and concepts related to armed conflicts between Native Americans and those of European descent, for the years between 1599 and 1890 and primarily the geographic locations now within the borders of the U.S. The sharply focused, extensively cross-indexed entries, accompanied by 78 black-and-white illustrations and 36 maps, are intended to introduce the topic to students in grade nine and up. Preceding the entries are five essays, written by the editors: "American Indians Prior to 1492," "Warfare Terminology," "Armies of Empire: Colonial, State, Federal and Imperial Forces in the Indian Wars," "Wars and Warfare," and "Wars and Warfare, Another View." Appendixes include a list of tribes of North America organized by culture area (region), a chronology, and a selected bibliography. The index indicates main entries, entries with photographs or maps, and chronology entries.

The encyclopedia of North American Indian wars, 1607-1890 : a political, social, and military history / Spencer C. Tucker, editor ; James Arnold and Roberta Wiener, editors, documents volume ; Paul G. Pierpaoli, Jr., associate editor ; David Coffey, Jim Piecuch, assistant editors.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, c2011.  3 volumes.  Main Library E81 .E984 2011 : This thoughtfully prepared three-volume reference tackles the complexities of the history of contact between Native Americans and European settler--a protracted "war" sustained over close to 300 years. The first volume leads off with a section of general maps, an overview essay, and an introductory essay--setting the context for the 800 entries that follow. The second volume holds the second half of those entries and also includes an appendix of decorations, medals, and military honors; a glossary, chronology, and bibliography; and a categorical index. Entries pertain to individuals, events, tribes, groups and organizations, places, ideas and movements, treaties and other documents, weapons, and miscellaneous topics (e.g. corn liquor, Custer's last stand in art, military medicine, Native American medicine, scalp bounty, and smallpox). Each entry is signed and includes references and cross references. The third volume contains 167 documents--an extensive presentation that includes numerous treaties and Acts as well as firsthand accounts by participants in the events.

Forgotten Fights : Little-Known Raids and Skirmishes on the Frontier, 1823 to 1890 / Gregory F. Michno and Susan J. Michno.  Missoula, Mont. : Mountain Press Pub. Co., 2008.  384pp.  Main Library E81 .M53 2008 : In this unique study, Gregory and Susan Michno chronicle more than three hundred lesser-known but significant conflicts of the western Indian Wars, describing not only skirmishes between Indians and the United States Army, but also Indian raids on civilian settlers and travelers. By shifting attention away from the larger and more famous battles, the authors bring into sharper focus the small-scale confrontations that defined the Indian Wars. Forgotten Fights presents vivid accounts of these rarely examined conflicts, giving readers and researchers enlightening glimpses into the unpredictable lives of the emigrants, homesteaders, soldiers, and Indians of the American frontier. An excellent reference book in its own right, it also serves as a supplement to Gregory F. Michno's Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850–1890 (Mountain Press, 2003). Historical and modern photographs enhance the text, while detailed maps pinpoint battle sites.

Handbook of the American Frontier : Four Centuries of Indian-White Relationships.  Scarecrow Press.  5 volumes. Main Library E76.2 .H43 1987 available in print.   Vols. 1-5 also  available online : Seeks to bridge the gap between studies of indigenous Americans and those of settlers of European or African descent. The author bridges this fissure in scholarship of nearly 5 centuries of history by using Native American-white interaction as a guide. He provides a unique perspective on the implications of American settlement and the interaction of numerous cultures throught the history of North America.  The study has emphasized the careers of prominent frontier participants, and has presented articles on individuals and events that had a significant impact upon the shifting dynamics of frontier settlement and expansion. The Handbook contains hundreds of sources, both primary and secondary, and seeks to foreground the perspective of heretofore largely ignored groups such as women and blacks, and frequently misrepresented cultures of native North Americans.

Historical dictionary of early North America / Cameron B. Wesson.  Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 2005.  273pp.  Main Library  E35 .W475 2005 : This book examines the long and complex history of human occupation in North America, covering its distinct culture areas of the Arctic, California, Eastern Woodlands, Great Basin, Great Plains, Northwest Coast, Plateau, Southwest, and Subarctic. Complete with maps, a chronology that spans the history from 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1850, an introductory essay, more than 700 dictionary entries, and a comprehensive bibliography, this reference is a valuable tool for scholars and students. An appendix of museums that have North American collections and a listing of archaeological sites that allow tours by the public also makes this an accessible guide to the interested lay reader and high school student.Timelines of Native American history / Carl Waldman ; illustrated by Molly Braun ; designed by Robert Engle ; produced by TD Media, Inc.  New York : Prentice Hall General Reference, c1994.  32pp.  Main Library E77 .W197 1994 : Presents a chronology of native American civilizations, from prehistoric times to the present, in a colorful, richly illustrated, ten-page pullout format, including full-color maps, appendix, biographical dictionary, list of titles, glossary, and complete index.

Native Peoples A to Z: A Reference Guide to Native Peoples of the Western Hemisphere.   2nd Edition, 2009.  online  An eight volume set that recounts the history of Native Peoples, beginning with the Ice Age and covering traditional native cultures before and after European contact in an easy to use A to Z format. Volumes One through Six contain articles on hundreds of Tribes and Nations, Biographies of significant and noteworthy Native Americans, Historical Events, and segments about daily life. Volume Seven contains all the Treaties between U.S. Tribes and Nations and the United States Government. Volume Eight contains an expansive Chronology, Bibliography, Directory of Internet Resources, Directory of Tribes and Nations, and a 14,000 citation index that makes the set thoroughly referential.

The set is abundantly illustrated with hundreds of images and maps, many in color. NATIVE PEOPLES A TO Z covers the Native Peoples of all areas of the Western Hemisphere, carefully explaining the differences in culture, history and social organization. Major topics include language, religion, the arts, sports, and games. Many of the articles were written by Native American scholars.

The Second Edition contains additions, improvements, and updates to the first edition. A new section, Internet Resources, provides the names of websites and links on Native Peoples of the western hemisphere. This specialized guide to resources on the Internet provides library users direct links to additional in-depth and information on the World Wide Web. Hundreds of color pictures have been added to enhance the visual quality of the written text. The updated Chronology section brings attention to the latest accomplishments and challenges facing the Native Peoples of the western hemisphere. An expanded Bibliography contains the most recent titles published on Native Peoples.

Current Issues

Current History and Issues

The ABC-CLIO Companion to the Native American Rights MovementGast Business Library KF8203.36 .G76 1996. : Traces "the efforts of the Native American rights movement to preserve and recover the civil rights of American Indians."

American Indians at Risk / Edited by Jeffrey Ian Ross.  Santa Barbara, CA : Greenwood Press, 2014.  on order : This essential reference work enables a deeper understanding of contemporary challenges in the lives of American Indians and Alaskan Natives today, carefully reviewing their unique problems and proposing potential solutions.

Encyclopedia of American Indian civil rights / edited by James S. Olson ; Mark Baxter, Jason M. Tetzloff, and Darren Pierson, associate editors. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1997. 417pp. Gast Business Library KF8210.C5 E53 1997 : Individual demands for equality and civil rights are central themes in U.S. history and American Indian people are no exception. They have had to deal with white racism and its expression in local and national political institutions while trying to define the rights of individual Indians vis-a-vis their own tribal governments. The struggle has made their civil rights movement unique. This encyclopedia, designed to meet the curriculum needs of high school and college students, provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of American Indian civil rights issues. More than 600 entries cover a variety of perspectives, issues, individuals, incidents, and court cases central to an understanding of the history of civil rights among American Indian peoples

Encyclopedia of American Indian Issues Today / Russell M. Lawson.  Santa Barbara, CA : Greenwood, 2013.  E76.2 .E527 2013 Online Resource  : This two-volume encyclopedia set presents 85 essays on American Indian issues in recent decades. The entries are organized thematically into ten sections on peoples and places; economy and work; learning, literacy and languages; health of body and mind in private and public spheres; Indian identity, spirituality, traditional and modern thought; sovereignty and dependence; law, politics and conflict; American Indian art and media; environmental concerns; and a final section on Canadian Indians and other aboriginal peoples. The entries are 5-15 pages long. Topics include kinship structures, women's identity and power, unemployment, deaf Native Americans, racial stereotyping in mascots, controversy over ownership of artifacts, Indian sovereignty, political activism, media made by Indians, tribal land use and preserving habitats, biocolonialism, and worldwide indigenous activism. The contributors come from North America, Europe and New Zealand. They include independent scholars, attorneys, and professors of history, sociology, English, religious studies, and Native American studies.

Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements / Todd Leahy and Nathan Wilson.  Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield, [2016]  2nd edition, 302pp.  E93 .L43 2016  : Native Americans in the United States, similar to other indigenous people, created political, economic, and social movements to meet and adjust to major changes that impacted their cultures. For centuries, Native Americans dealt with the onslaught of non-Indian land claims, the appropriation of their homelands, and the destruction of their ways of life. Through various movements, Native Americans accepted, rejected, or accommodated themselves to the nontraditional worldviews of the colonizers and their policies. The Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements is designed to provide a useful reference for students and scholars to consult on topics dealing with key movements, organizations, leadership strategies, and the major issues these groups confronted.  This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 200 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, language, religion, politics, and the environment.

Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements .  Scarecrow Press.  205pp.  Main Library  E93 .L43 2008  Also available online : A historical dictionary for scholars and students studying American Indians or Native Americans. This dictionary covers key American Indian movements, organizations, leaders, and major issues. Following a listing of acronyms and abbreviations are a chronology and a lengthy historical introduction to Native American history. The dictionary covers biographies, groups and movements, and Native topics such as alcoholism, disease, gaming, horses, sun dance, and totem poles. The authors address historical events and places. The cross-referenced entries vary in length, with most being short. Also featured are an appendix of five speeches or addresses given by people such as Pontiac and Crazy Horse and a bibliography that starts with general reference works and then is divided into historical periods. This bibliography consists of books and Internet sites, but not journals. Nine photographs are included.  Note: 2016 edition on order.

Native America in the Twentieth Century.  Garland. Main Library E76.2 .N36 1994. : More than 300 signed articles by 282 contributors make this a first-stop reference source for material about contemporary Native Americans. It is important to note that more than 40 percent of the articles were written by Native Americans. Overview articles appear on such topics as art, education, government, and health, which contain see also references. Other articles cover such topics as the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, the National Congress of American Indians, and Red Power from an Indian perspective. The largest number of articles are on individual tribes; these are often accompanied by charts and graphs and vary in length from less than one-half page for Nanticoke to five pages for Navajo. Extensive bibliographies accompany every entry. In addition, there are more than 20 full-page line maps and many black-and-white photographs. All entries are signed, and the authors' credentials are provided. At the beginning of the work, a classified list of articles lists them under such headings as Art, Government Policy, Law, and Religion. The detailed index provides subject access.

Native American education : a reference handbook / Lorraine Hale.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, c2002.  308pp. Main Library E97
.H138 2002
: This reference text focuses on the chronological development of Native American education with reference to many of the significant events in mainstream American education.  The text includes an historical overview of events and legislation from early colonization through the 20th century; current issues in American Indian education;  strategies for educators to more effectively teach Native American students; a full list of associations, organizations, and tribal entities; and a selection of print and nonprint resources on related issues.  The appendix contains the text of six significant laws effecting Native American education.

Native American Issues [electronic resource] : A Reference Handbook / William N. ThompsonSanta Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, c1996.  293pp.  E98.T77 T56 1996eb  Online : The first settlers of the North American continent formed a multitude of societies and enjoyed exclusive occupation of over seven million square miles of land. Today their descendants are relegated to lands totaling less than 50,000 square miles. This reference handbook explores contemporary political issues surrounding the confinement of native peoples to limited lands in the United States and Canada; the status and powers of native governments; and the health, wealth, and education of native peoples. Biographical sketches, a chronology of events, selected legislation, significant court cases, facts and figures, quotations, presidential proclamations, and lists of print and nonprint resources complete this comprehensive work.

The Praeger Handbook on Contemporary Issues in Native America.  Praeger. 2 vols. Main Library E98.S67 J65 2007 : Most Americans know very little about Native America. For many, most of their knowledge comes from an amalgam of three sources--a barely remembered required history class in elementary school, Hollywood movies, and debates in the news media over casinos or sports mascots. This two-volume set deals with these issues as well as with more important topics of concern to the future of Native Americans, including their economic revival, identity conflict, political and environmental justice, self-rule, revival of traditional food systems, federal fraud, and linguistic and cultural revitalization.

Humanities Resources

Humanities Focus

American Indian Religious Traditions : An Encyclopedia.  ABC-Clio.  Main Library E98.R3 C755 2005 : This three-volume encyclopedia is designed to define the academic study of American Indian religious traditions and to provide a reference that is sensitive to the political and ethical concerns of Native communities. Unlike much previous scholarship, this work attempts to present Native spiritual traditions as the practitioners themselves understand them; contributors are both Native and non-Native. While the complex subject matter is presented in more depth than is typical of dictionary-type references, the entries provide only brief introductions to the subject material. Atypical features include the use of first person narratives, the citation of individual Native elders as authoritative reference sources, and the deliberate omission of subjects that are considered private by Native communities. Entries are listed alphabetically, and the index is located in the third volume. The set includes some maps and black & white photographic images.

The Cambridge companion to Native American literature / edited by Joy Porter and Kenneth M. Roemer.  Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2005.  343pp.  Main Library PS153.I52 C36 2005 : This Companion provides an informative and wide-ranging overview of a relatively new field of literary-cultural studies: literature of many genres in English by American Indians from the 1770s to the present day. In addition to the seventeen chapters written by respected experts--Native and non-Native; American, British and European scholars--it includes bio-bibliographies of forty authors, maps, suggestions for further reading, and a timeline which details major works of Native American and mainstream American literature, as well as significant social, cultural and historical events.

Encyclopedia of American Indian Costume.  ABC-Clio.  MSU Fine Arts Library (Art Ref, 4 West) E98.C8 P37 1994  : A beautifully produced and illustrated (b&w) reference that offers complete descriptions and cultural contexts of the dress and ornamentation of the North American Indian tribes. The volume is divided into ten cultural regions, with each chapter giving an overview of the regional clothing. Individual tribes of the area follow in alphabetical order. Tribal information includes men's basic dress, women's basic dress, footwear, outer wear, hair styles, headgear, accessories, jewelry, armor, special costumes, garment decoration, face and body embellishment, transitional dress after European contact, and bibliographic references. Appendices include a description of clothing arts and a glossary. 

Encyclopedia of American Indian Literature.  Facts on File.  Main Library PS153.I52 E53 2007  : American Indians have produced some of the most powerful and lyrical literature ever written in North America. "Encyclopedia of American Indian Literature" covers the field from the earliest recorded works to some of today's most exciting writers. This encyclopedia features the most respected, widely read, and influential American Indian writers to date. Coverage includes: Sherman Alexie; American Indian Movement; "Assimilation"; "Ceremony"; Louise Erdrich; Joy Harjo; "House Made of Dawn"; "Love Medicine"; Leslie Marmon Silko; D'Arcy McNickle; N. Scott Momaday; "Native "chic""; Samson Occom; Simon Ortiz; "Reservation Life"; "This Way to Rainy Mountain"; "Trail of Tears"; Gerald Vizenor; James Welch; Zitkala-Sa; and much more.

Encyclopedia of Native American Artists.  Greenwood Press.  267pp.  Fine Arts Art Reference (4 West) N6538.A4 E94 2008 : Indigenous North Americans have continuously made important contributions to the field of art in the U.S. and Canada, yet have been severely under-recognized and under-represented. Native artists work in diverse media, some of which are considered art (sculpture, painting, photography), while others have been considered craft (works on cloth, basketry, ceramics).Some artists feel strongly about working from a position as a Native artist, while others prefer to produce art not connected to a particular cultural tradition. This volume examines the lives and works of approximately 70 Native American artists, demonstrating the range of media, themes, and experiences of Native artists, and their influences on and by western culture. Eight pages of color plates, and black and white images throughout, display the diversity of work by these artists.

Encyclopedia of Native American Music of North America / Elaine Keillor, Tim Archambault, and John M. H. Kelly.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : Greenwood, 2013.  449pp.  Fine Arts Library, Music Reference (4 West) ML102.N37 K45 2013 : Documents the surprisingly varied musical practices among North America's First Peoples, both historically and in the modern context. It supplies a detailed yet accessible and approachable overview of the substantial contributions and influence of First Peoples that can be appreciated by both native and nonnative audiences, regardless of their familiarity with musical theory....The entries address how ethnomusicologists with Native American heritage are revolutionizing approaches to the discipline, and showcase how musicians with First Peoples' heritage are influencing modern musical forms including native flute, orchestral string playing, gospel, and hip hop. The work represents a much-needed academic study of First Peoples' musical cultures—a subject that is of growing interest to Native Americans as well as nonnative students and readers.

Encyclopedia of Native American Religions : An Introduction / Arlene Hirschfelder, Paulette Molin ; foreword by Walter R. Echo-Hawk. New York : Facts on File, c2000.  390pp.  Main Library E98.R3 H73 2000 : Describes traditional beliefs and worship practices, the consequences of contact with Europeans and other Americans, and the forms of Native American religions take today.

First Nations Periodical Index : The First Nations Periodical Index contains journals of mainly Canadian Native content.  This Index is a tool providing access to information about First Nations for students (high school or university), educators, instructors and researchers. A joint project of the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Saskatoon Campus, the Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre and the Library Services for Saskatchewan Aboriginal Peoples committee.

Indigenous Peoples' Literature Index : These articles are part of a collection of writings celebrating the rich and diverse cultures of Indigenous Peoples' that thoughtfully assert the sovereign rights of the Peoples' of North and South America. This body of work was researched and cataloged by Glenn Welker and graciously shared with and first published on .

Native American voices : a history and anthology / edited with an introduction by Stephen Mintz.  St. James, N.Y. : Brandywine Press, c2000.  2nd enlarged edition, 244pp.  Main Library E77.2 .N38 2000 : An introduction synthesizes the latest anthropological, archaeological, historical, and sociological scholarship and the 95 carefully edited selections provide students with an overview of Native American history from the earliest migrations to the present.  The volume includes a chronology, glossary, and bibliography, making it a valuable teaching tool.

Native American Writers / Harold Bloom.  New York : Bloom's Modern Critical Views, 2010.   Main Library PS153.I52 N388 2010 : Presents a collection of contemporary criticism and analysis of the works of such Native American authors as N. Scott Momaday, Sherman Alexie, James Welch, and Joy Harjo.

Public Policy Resources

Documents of American Indian Diplomacy: Treaties, Agreements, and Conventions,1775-1979 (online). Main Library and MSU College of Law Library KF8202 1999. : This reference tour de force surpasses all previous anthologies of treaties, executive agreements, and conventions negotiated between the US government and the various Indian nations. It includes diplomacy between Native Americans and the governments of Britain, France, Spain, Russia, and Mexico. Each of the book's 18 sections is introduced with a brief narrative about the types of treaties within the featured section, a chronological list of the treaties, and the full text of each. Unlike Charles Kappler's Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties (1903-41), this new publication encompasses unratified treaties, those signed with the Republic of Texas and the Confederate States of America, railroad agreements, land grants to private parties, and land settlement acts of the 1920s-90s for broken treaties. Most welcome is the inclusion of formal agreements rejected by the Senate and others that were rejected by tribes. These demonstrate that not all negotiations were forced on Native Americans, nor were Indian peoples mere passive recipients of federal legislation. Equally revealing is the segment on the unique "state treaties" negotiated primarily by New York with the Iroquois between 1789 and 1846, followed by a large selection of treaties conducted between various Indian nations. A well-organized and detailed index makes this reference work user-friendly and should guarantee it a place within every university and research library.

Documents of Native American Political Development : 1500s to 1933 / [edited by] David E. Wilkins.  Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2009.  534pp.  Main Library E98.T77 D63 2009 : The arrival of European and Euro-American colonizers in the Americas brought not only physical attacks against Native American tribes, but also further attacks against the sovereignty of these Indian nations. Though the violent tales of the Trail of Tears, Black Hawk's War, and the Battle of Little Big Horn are taught far and wide, the political structure and development of Native American tribes, and the effect of American domination on Native American sovereignty, have been greatly neglected....This book contains a variety of primary source and other documents--traditional accounts, tribal constitutions, legal codes, business councils, rules and regulations, BIA agents reports, congressional discourse, intertribal compacts--written both by Natives from many different nations and some non-Natives, that reflect how indigenous peoples continued to exercise a significant measure of self-determination long after it was presumed to have been lost, surrendered, or vanquished. The documents are arranged chronologically, and Wilkins provides brief, introductory essays to each document, placing them within the proper context. Each introduction is followed by a brief list of suggestions for further reading....Covering a fascinating and relatively unknown period in Native American history, from the earliest examples of indigenous political writings to the formal constitutions crafted just before the American intervention of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, this anthology will be an invaluable resource for scholars and students of the political development of indigenous peoples the world over.

Documents of United States Indian Policy. Business Library KF8205 .D63 2000. : Primary documents on the Indian policy of the U.S. government.

Early American Indian Documents : Treaties and Laws, 1607-1789 / general editor, Alden T. Vaughan. Washington, D.C. : University Publications of America, c1979-<c2004>  20 volumes.  Gast Business Library KF8202.2 1979 : v. 1. Pennsylvania and Delaware treaties, 1629-1737 / edited by Donald H. Kent -- v. 2. Pennsylvania treaties, 1737-1756 / edited by Donald H. Kent -- v. 4. Virginia treaties, 1607-1722 / edited by W. Stitt Robinson -- v. 5. Virginia treaties, 1723-1775 / edited by W. Stitt Robinson -- v. 6. Maryland treaties, 1762-1775 / edited by W. Stitt Robinson -- v. 7. New York and New Jersey treaties, 1609-1682 / edited by Barbara Graymont -- v. 8. New York and New Jersey treaties and laws, 1607-1789 -- v. 9. New York and New Jersey treaties, 1714-1753 -- v. 10. New York and New Jersey treaties, 1754-1775 / edited by Barbara Graymont -- v. 11. Georgia treaties, 1733-1763 / edited by John T. Juricek -- v. 12. Georgia and Florida treaties, 1763-1776 -- v. 13. North and South Carolina treaties, 1654-1756 -- v. 14. North and South Carolina treaties, 1756-1775 / edited by W. Stitt Robinson -- v. 17. New England and Middle Atlantic laws -- v. 18. Revolution and Confederation / edited by Colin G. Calloway -- v. 19. New England treaties, southeast, 1524-1761 / edited by Daniel R. Mandell -- v. 20. New England treaties, north and west, 1650-1776

Encyclopedia of United States Indian Policy and Law Washington, D.C. : CQ Press, c2009.  2 vols.  MSU College of Law Library (Level 1) KF8205 .E49 2009 : An essential reference on the reciprocal role that U.S. and Native policy and law have played in American political development. Created by a culturally diverse editorial board of major scholars and containing invaluable bibliographic material not found in other publications, this definitive two-volume set examines the history and impact of U.S. relations with Native Americans. Extensive essays trace policies from the Continental Congress to the present day—including the role that managing the “Indian question” has played in American political development—while A to Z entries cover everything critical to a full understanding of the context to U.S./Native American relations, from history, politics, and sociology to civil rights and culture. The set is also the first reference of its kind to incorporate the expanding scholarship reflecting both the Native American viewpoint on and response to federal policies and initiatives over time.

Indian Affairs : Laws and Treaties. A digital reproduction of an historically significant, seven volume compilation of U.S. treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to Native American Indian tribes by Charles J. Kappler. The volumes cover U.S. Government treaties with Native Americans from 1778-1883 (Volume II) and U.S. laws and executive orders concerning Native Americans from 1871-1970 (Volumes I, III-VII). The work was first published in 1903-04 by the U.S. Government Printing Office. Enhanced by the editors' use of margin notations and a comprehensive index, the information contained in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties is in high demand by Native peoples, researchers, journalists, attorneys, legislators, teachers and others of both Native and non-Native origins.   Also available via HeinOnline.  Also available in print; each volume contains an index. 

Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894 : United States Serial Set, Number 4015 Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.  The Schedule of Indian Land Cessions subtitle notes that it "indicates the number and location of each cession by or reservation for the Indian tribes from the organization of the Federal Government to and including 1894, together with descriptions of the tracts so ceded or reserved, the date of the treaty, law or executive order governing the same, the name of the tribe or tribes affected thereby, and historical data and references bearing thereon."  The Schedule of Indian Land Cessions comprises 709 entries with links to the related map or maps for each entry. The tables and essays are available in both searchable text and page images and the maps are available in images. Due to the complexity of information presented in each entry, it is strongly recommended that users print out both pages of a table entry for comparison with the related map.

Indian Treaties, 1778-1883 / compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler, with a new foreword by Brantley Blue. New York : Interland Pub., 1972.  1099pp.  Main Library E95 .U63 1972 (Also available in MSU College of Law Library)

Indigenous Law Portal (Library of Congress).

Nation to Nation : Treaties Between the United States & American Indian Nations / general editor, Suzan Shown Harjo.  Washington, DC : Published by the National Museum of the American Indian in association with Smithsonian Books, [2014]  258pp.  on order : "Nation to Nation explores the promises, diplomacy, and betrayals involved in treaties and treaty making between the United States government and Native nations. One side sought to own the riches of North America and the other struggled to hold on to traditional homelands and ways of life. The book reveals how the ideas of honor, fair dealings, good faith, rule of law, and peaceful relations between nations have been tested and challenged in historical and modern times. The book consistently demonstrates how and why centuries-old treaties remain living, relevant documents for both Natives and non-Natives in the 21st century"..."Approximately 368 treaties were negotiated and signed by U.S. commissioners and tribal leaders (and subsequently approved by the U.S. Senate) from 1777 to 1868. These treaties enshrine promises the U.S. government made to Indian people and recognize tribes as nations--a fact that distinguishes tribal citizens from other Americans, and supports contemporary Native assertions of tribal sovereignty and self-determination. Treaties are legally binding and still in effect. Beginning in the 1960s, Native activists invoked America's growing commitment to social justice to restore broken treaties. Today, the reassertion of treaty rights and tribal self-determination is evident in renewed tribal political, economic, and cultural strength, as well as in reinvigorated nation-to-nation relations with the United States"

Treaties with American Indians : an Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and SovereigntyMSU Schaeffer Law Library (Level 1) KF8203.6 .T74 2008  : This three volume encyclopedia, the work of editor Fixico (history, Arizona State Univ.) and more than 100 contributing scholars, is intended as a comprehensive reference tool for anyone interested in American Indian treaties with the United States. Coverage ranges from the 1778 alliance with the Delaware tribe to the continuing impact of treaties presently in force. Volume 1 contains 16 thematic essays providing government and Indian perspectives on such issues as federal policy, Indian removal, and water rights as well as six essays looking at U.S.Indian relations by region. Volume 2 consists of 300 A to Z entries describing U.S. Indian and Canadian Indian treaties and important treaty sites; these entries often cite primary source documents. And Volume 3 features a historical chronology, brief biographies of significant individuals, and a section on treaty related issues. These volumes, together with several resource pages of tribal names, describe the larger number of Native American treaties and their lengths and complexities.  


More advanced researchers may want to examine bibliographies -- compilations of authorative works on particular topics such as Native American Studies.

Note there is a separate tab for bibliographies.

For a more extensive listing, visit the MSU Library online catalog and try the following keyword search s:Indians Of North America Bibliography

For a shorter list, visit the MSU Library online catalog and try a subject search with Indians Of North America Bibliography 

Multicultural Sources

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America  (print) / contributing editor, Robert von Dassanowsky ; author of introduction, Rudolph J. Vecoli ; edited by Jeffrey Lehman.  Detroit : Gale Group, c2000.  3 vols. Main Library E184.A1 G14 2000  : Essays on approximately 150 culture groups of the U.S., from Acadians to Yupiats, covering their history, acculturation and assimilation, family and community dynamics, language and religion.

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Primary Documents (print) / edited by Jeffrey Lehman. Detroit, MI : Gale Group, c1999.  2 volumes.  Main Library E184.A1 G15 1999 : Primary documents, including letters, articles, cartoons, photos, and songs, illuminate the experience of culture groups in the U.S. from colonial times to the present.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America / Thomas Riggs, editor.  Detroit : Gale, Cengage Learning, 2014.  3rd edition, 4 volumes.   E184.A1 G14 2014 : This third edition has been thoroughly reorganized and has 23 new entries, each covering an immigrant or indigenous group in the U.S. Although the writing on cultural history and political activity is well done, the information highlighted in separate boxes is what truly fleshes out each culture. Students will find population maps, Sioux proverbs, and a Salvadoran recipe for chili-lime mango.

Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (print) / Stephan Thernstrom, editor ; Ann Orlov, managing editor, Oscar Handlin, consulting editor.  Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press, 1980.  1076pp.  Oversize Collection (Basement, Center) E184.A1 H35  : Provides long, scholarly essays on all the ethnic groups in the United States, not only the immigrants and refugees who had come voluntarily but also those already in the New World when the first Europeans arrived, those whose ancestors came involuntarily as slaves, and those who became part of the American population as a result of conquest or purchase and subsequent annexation. Extensive bibliographies follow all major essays.

Multicultural America : a multimedia encyclopedia / Carlos E. Cortés, editor, University of California, Riverside.  Thousand Oaks, California : SAGE Reference, A Division of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2013.  E184.A1 M8145 2013 Online via Sage Knowledge.  : This comprehensive title is among the first to extensively use newly released 2010 U.S. Census data to examine multiculturalism today and tomorrow in America. This distinction is important considering the following NPR report by Eyder Peralta: “Based on the first national numbers released by the Census Bureau, the AP reports that minorities account for 90 percent of the total U.S. growth since 2000, due to immigration and higher birth rates for Latinos.” According to John Logan, a Brown University sociologist who has analyzed most of the census figures, “The futures of most metropolitan areas in the country are contingent on how attractive they are to Hispanic and Asian populations.” Both non-Hispanic whites and blacks are getting older as a group. “These groups are tending to fade out,” he added. Another demographer, William H. Frey with the Brookings Institution, told The Washington Post that this has been a pivotal decade. “We’re pivoting from a white-black-dominated American population to one that is multiracial and multicultural.”  Pedagogical elements include an introduction, a thematic reader’s guide, a chronology of multicultural milestones, a glossary, a resource guide to key books, journals, and Internet sites, and an appendix of 2010 U.S. Census Data. Finally, the electronic version will be the only reference work on this topic to augment written entries with multimedia for today’s students, with 100 videos (with transcripts) from Getty Images and Video Vault, the Agence France Press, and Sky News.

Multiculturalism in the United States : a Comparative Guide to Acculturation and Ethnicity (print) / edited by John D. Buenker and Lorman A. Ratner.   Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2005.  Rev. and expanded ed., 435pp.  Main Library E184.A1 M85 2005 : Contents -- Introduction / John D. Buenker and Lorman A. Ratner -- African Americans / Cynthia Greggs Fleming -- American Indians / Vine Deloria, Jr. -- Arab-Americans / Gregory Orfalea -- Asian Indian Americans / Karen I. Leonard -- Chinese Americans / George Anthony Peffer -- Dominican Americans / Silvio Torres-Saillant -- Filipino Americans / Augusto Espiritu -- German Americans / James M. Bergquist -- Haitian Americans / Marc Prou -- Irish Americans / Lawrence J. McCaffrey -- Italian Americans / Dominic Candeloro -- Jewish Americans / Edward S. Shapiro -- Korean Americans / Kyeyoung Park -- Mexican Americans / Matt S. Meier -- Polish Americans / Edward R. Kantowicz -- Scandinavian Americans / John Robert Christianson -- Vietnamese Americans / Hien Duc Do -- Bibliographical essay / John D. Buenker, Joseph D. Buenker, and Lorman A. Ratner.  Interest in ethnic studies and multiculturalism has grown considerably in the years since the 1992 publication of the first edition of this work. Co-editors Ratner and Buenker have revised and updated the first edition of Multiculturalism in the United States to reflect the changes, patterns, and shifts in immigration showing how American culture affects immigrants and is affected by them. Common topics that helped determine the degree and pace of acculturation for each ethnic group are addressed in each of the 17 essays, providing the reader with a comparative reference tool. Seven new ethnic groups are included: Arabs, Haitians, Vietnamese, Koreans, Filipinos, Asian Indians, and Dominicans. New essays on the Irish, Chinese, and Mexicans are provided as are revised and updated essays on the remaining groups from the first edition.

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Sketch of Roanoke Indians Made by John White in 1585