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Asian American Studies Research Guide: Reference Tools

Reference Tools

Reference books include dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, directories, manuals, handbooks, and much more. Reference books can help you

  1. explore a topic (find out what has been said about a topic, trends, issues, etc.
  2. identify unfamiliar terms or people in your reading
  3. find references to other books and articles on the topic, and
  4. find keywords to use in online searches.

This page pulls together a sample of both electronic and print reference tools.

Basic Reference Tools (Online)

If you don't know where to start, you may want to try one of the following online compilations of reference tools:

Gale Virtual Reference Library : Includes encyclopedic articles on historical and contemporary Natie American research topics.  Note;  It may be necessary to click on Gale products more than once before they open!

Oxford Reference Online : Contains online versions of dictionaries and encyclopedias previously published in paper by the Oxford University Press.

Sage Reference Online : Includes numerous encyclopedias and handbooks, primarily in the Social Sciences.

Recommended Reference Tools

100 Questions and Answers about Indian Americans : a guide in cultural competence / Michigan State University School of Journalism.  Canton, Michigan : Read the Spirit Books, [2013]  47 pp. Main Library and Faculty Book Collection (1 West)  E184.E2 M53 2013 : Part of the Michigan State University School of Journalism series in cultural competence. This guide to Indians in America has sections on India history, population, religion, language, culture, food, gender, family, education, work and politics. It includes Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism. It explains why Indians come to America and the work and customs they bring with them. The guide is intended for people in business, schools, places of worship, government, medicine, law enforcement, human resources and journalism.

The Asian-American Almanac : a Reference Work on Asian-Americans in the United States / Susan Gall, Irene Natividad [editors].  Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research, 1995.  834pp.  Main Library E184.O6 A824 1995 : This latest book in Gale's series on American ethnic groups covers 15 major Asian American groups/nationalities. Notably absent are Taiwanese and Bangladeshi Americans, although there is a chapter on Nepali Americans [sic]. The remainder of the book addresses a variety of issues common to Asian and Pacific island Americans. Noteworthy chapters include those that discuss prominent Asian Americans and historic Asian American landmarks, and reprinted texts of speeches. The 41 signed chapters and bibliography were written and refereed by authorities in the field of Asian American studies. Gall, the executive editor, is well known in Asian American and women's affairs in the US and the Philippines.

Asian American Chronology / edited by Deborah G. Baron and Susan B. GallNew York : U.X.L., c1996.  173pp. Main Library E184.O6 A8258 1996 : Beginning in 11,000 B.C. and ending in 1995, this volume provides entries for major and little-known events and people which reflect "firsts," immigration trends, civil rights law, and court cases involving or relevant to Asian Americans.

Asian American Chronology : Chronologies of the American Mosaic / edited by Ziaojian Zhao.  Greenwood, 2009.  E184.A75 Z47 2009 Online  : Key moments in Asian American history come alive in this concise and accessible chronology.

The Asian American Encyclopedia / editor, Franklin NgNew York : Marshall Cavendish, 1995.  Main Library E184.O6 A827 1995 : This 6-volume encyclopedia provides the most thorough coverage of the Asian American experience past and present ever published in a single multivolume reference source. The information found in this reference set cannot readily be found elsewhere. Highlights the role of Asian Americans in the arts, education and scholarship, government and politics, science and technology, sports, and many other fields. Entries cover such broad topics as the Asian American Movement, Families, the Model Minority, Asian American Women and more. Charts, tables, graphs and more than fifty maps complement the text.

Asian-American Experience on File / executive editors, Carter Smith III and David Lindroth.  New York : Facts On File, c1999.  1 volume (looseleaf) Main Library  E184.O6 A8273 1999 : Provides information on the history and experiences of Americans with roots in China, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Hawaii and the Pacific Islands, Japan, and Korea.

Asian American history and culture : an encyclopedia / Huping Ling and Allan Austin, editors.  Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 2010.  2 volumes.  Main Library E184.A75 A8287 2010 : Ling and Austin offer an encyclopedia of Asian American history and culture organized by nationality. Each group description has information on history, culture, and social status, as well as thematic essays on education, business, politics, gender, family, community, and persons, events, and organizations. Other topics include affirmative action, Asian American studies, assimilation and acculturation, gay and lesbian issues, immigration, labor and employment, language, parenting, literature, religion, interracial marriage, film, martial arts, settlement patterns, cuisine, and sexuality. Groups include Bangladeshi, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Nepalese, Pacific Islander, Sri Lankan, Pakistani, and Vietnamese Americans. An overview essay on the Asian American experience begins the volumes. An index is provided in the second volume only.

Asian American Leadership : A Reference Guide / Don Nakanishi, editor.  [Santa Barbara, California] : Mission Bell Media, [2015]  321pp.  Main Library E184.O6 E184.A75 A841442 2015  : An authoritative, up-to-date reference guide organized in A to Z fashion covering all the major inter-disciplinary themes related to individual and group leadership in the Asian American communities and beyond. Key themes include Asian American academic, business, political, scientific and sports leadership.

Asian American Reference LibraryNew York : UXL, c2004.  2nd edition, 6 volumes.  Main Library E184.O6 A822 2004 :  Contents - [v.1] Almanac / Irene Natividad and Susan B. Gall, eds.-- [v.2] Biography, A-L / Helen Zia and Susan B. Gall, eds.-- [v.3] Biography, M-Z / Helen Zia and Susan B. Gall, eds.-- [v.4] Chronology / Deborah G. Baron and Susan B. Gall, eds.-- [v.5] Voices / Deborah Gillan Straub, ed.-- [v.6] Cumulative index / Diane Sawinski, project editor.

Asian American Society : An Encyclopedia. via  Sage Reference Online.  2014pp.  : Asian Americans are a growing, minority population in the United States. After a 46 percent population growth between 2000 and 2010 according to the 2010 Census, there are 17.3 million Asian Americans today. Yet Asian Americans as a category are a diverse set of peoples from over 30 distinctive Asian-origin subgroups that defy simplistic descriptions or generalizations. They face a wide range of issues and problems within the larger American social universe despite the persistence of common stereotypes that label them as a “model minority” for the generalized attributes offered uncritically in many media depictions.  Asian American Society: An Encyclopedia provides a thorough introduction to the wide–ranging and fast–developing field of Asian American studies. Published with the Association for Asian American Studies (AAAS), two volumes of the four-volume encyclopedia feature more than 300 A-to-Z articles authored by AAAS members and experts in the field who examine the social, cultural, psychological, economic, and political dimensions of the Asian American experience. The next two volumes of this work contain approximately 200 annotated primary documents, organized chronologically, that detail the impact American society has had on reshaping Asian American identities and social structures over time.

Asian American YearbookMcLean, VA : TIYM, 2005.   256pp.  Latest edition available : 2nd edition or 2005/2006.  Main Library E184.A75 A84263  : The Asian American community has found its authoritative guide in this reference to practical, political, financial, educational, and professional areas of community life. Statistical data and comprehensive listings provide readers access to financial aid opportunities; professional career and business advice; health-related information; and community organizations, publications, and media outlets worldwide. 

The Asian Pacific American Heritage : A Companion to Literature and Arts / George J. Leonard, editorNew York : Garland Pub., 1999.  690pp.  Main Library PS153.A84 A87 1999 : It's official: the vacuum at the heart of Asian American studies has finally been eliminated with a credible sourcebook. This volume stands alongside Alexander Besher's The Pacific Rim Almanac (CH, Dec'91), Simon Winchester's Pacific Rising (1991), and William Irwin Thompson's Pacific Shift (CH, Dec'86) as essential reading in Asian Pacific "new world" cultural studies. Leonard does not pretend to cover everything. Given the multicultural ethos, only a comprehensive overview is possible, and Leonard's team provides that with more than 60 original articles grouped in general thematic areas. Contributors address family and the self, old-country roots and traditions, literature, fine arts, sundry aspects of East Asian languages, and the diaspora. Shaping a background for the "American" Asian Pacific heritage are readable eclectic briefs on quotidian fare--names in different Asian cultures, regional foods, religion, philosophy, festivals. Highbrows need not sniff: an enlightened East/West theorist, Leonard complements this with histories of Asian immigrants--Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Thai, and Viet.

Chinese Americans : the history and culture of a people / Jonathan H.X. Lee, editor.  Santa Barbara, California : ABC-CLIO, 2016.  498pp.  Main Library E184.C5 C4797 2016  (Also available online) : Part I. Context of Chinese American emigration: coming to America -- Part II. Political activity and economic life: business endeavors and involvement in American politics -- Part III. Cultural and religious life: people, institutions, and organizations -- Part IV. Literature, the arts, popular culture, and sports: people, movements, and expressions of identity.

The Columbia Documentary History of the Asian American Experience / Franklin OdoColumbia University Press, 2002.  590pp. Main Library E184.O6 C642 2002 :  Brings together a fascinating collection of varied primary source documents relevant to Asian American history and to broader racial and ethnic issues in the US. Materials include reproductions of 19th-century political cartoons from US magazines, sheet music for popular songs from the 19th century through the 1970s, and the texts of numerous important federal laws, Supreme Court case decisions, and lesser-known state legislation and case decisions. Odo (director, Smithsonian's Asian Pacific American Program) has carefully chosen representative essays, statements, interviews, speeches, and commentaries from many different Asian American groups, including Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Vietnamese Americans, that collectively shed light on a broad spectrum of issues relevant to these ethnic groups. Intended as a primary source companion to The Columbia Guide to Asian American History, ed. by Gary Y. Okihiro, Odo's volume is organized into helpful thematic units that correspond to specific periods in Asian American history, pre-1900 to the present and focus on ongoing issues of immigration, migration, and accommodation, attending specially to WW II. The editor's well-written overviews for each of these units, together with helpful abstracts, place each document in context. An invaluable contribution to Asian American studies, US racial and ethnic studies, and US history.

The Columbia Guide to Asian American History / Gary Y. Okihiro.  Columbia University Press, c2001.  323pp.  Main Library E184.O6 C64 2001 : The field of Asian American studies has grown rapidly, with a corresponding increase in the number of publications on Asian American history. Respected pioneer in Asian American studies Okihiro is well suited for his task of offering a convenient introduction to this bourgeoning literature. After presenting a brief narrative that deftly weaves together the history of Asians in Hawaii and the continental US, he considers alternative ways to periodize this experience by viewing it from the vantage points of African Americans, South Asians, Koreans, and women. The author then discusses several issues that have elicited much debate, such as the size of the Hawaiian population before contact with Westerners; how Hawaiians saw Captain James Cook; different analytical schemes for examining migration; the reasons for the anti-Chinese movement; and the causes of the Japanese American internment during WW II. In an interesting section on historiography, which will likely generate much discussion, Okihiro separates writings into anti-Asianist, liberal, and Asian Americanist categories. Overall, this is a stimulating and helpful guide to contemporary scholarship in Asian American history.

A Companion to Asian American Studies / edited by Kent A. Ono.  Blackwell Reference Online (2004).  Provides a snapshot of early debates within the field, as well as more contemporary essays that have helped transform te field's intellectual terrian. Ranging from essays on class and sexuality to those focusing on literature, transnationality, and identity, this volume exemplifies the evolving intellectual shape of Asian American Studies....The anthology comprises 20 previously published essays that have played an important historical role in the conceptualization of Asian American studies as a field. Divided into sections covering psychology, history, literature, feminism, and more current work in the field, this volume is a summation of an important and increasingly vibrant field of study. It can be usd in conjunction with Asian American Studies After Critical Mass (2008), also edited by Kent A. Ono.

Dictionary of Asian American History / edited by Hyung-Chan KimGreenwood Press, 1986.  627pp.  Main Library E184.O6 D53 1986 : Filling an important gap in scholarship, this unique historical dictionary recounts the experience of immigrants from more than ten countries in East and Southeast Asia and assesses the cultural, social, economic, and political impact of these groups on United States history. A wealth of specific information on people, places, and events is contained in over one thousand entries, each including its own bibliography. Fourteen historical and sociological essays, written by outstanding Asian specialists, provide analyses of particular groups and issues and clarify the ethnohistorical concepts that are essential to an understanding of majority/minority relations in America. An extensive general bibliography on Asian-American history and a comprehensive chronology of events are additional features.

Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today / Edith Wen-Chu Chen, Grace J. Yoo, editors.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : Greenwood Press, c2010.  2 volumes.  Main Library E184.A75 E53 2010 : This two-volume encyclopedia is a general reference work accessible to students at the high school level and above and to general readers. It will be useful as a starting point for research as well as an overview of issues for professionals who work in education or social and public services. The introductory essay addresses the diversity of Asian Americans and some entrenched myths about the "model minority," as well as rising concerns and the increased need for dialogue. Following are 151 essays, which, happily, are organized by theme rather than alphabetically (a cumbersome scheme inexplicably used in many references). The thematic arrangement simply offers a much more cohesive presentation. Grouping of the entries is in sections pertaining to diversity and demographics; economy and work; education; health; identity; immigration, refugees, and citizenship; law; media; politics; war; and youth, family, and the aged. Each section begins with an overview and concludes with a resource guide. Enhancing the contents are biographical sidebars, quotations, statistics, some b&w photos, and examination of the 2007 US Census Bureau's American Community Survey. General editors Wen-Chu Chen (Asian American studies, California State U., Northridge) and Grace J. Yoo (Asian American studies, San Francisco State U.) have overseen the efforts of a long list of section editors and contributors.

Encyclopedia of Japanese American History : An A-to-Z Reference From 1868 to the Present / Brian Niiya, editor ; Japanese American National Museum ; foreword by Daniel K. Inouye ; introduction essay by Gary Y. Okihiro.  New York : Facts on File, c2001.  446pp.  Main Library E184.J3 E53 2001 : Chronicles the history of Japanese Americans with entries that reveal their culture, religion, accomplishments, and social interactions with other ethnic groups in America.

Encyclopedia of Japanese American Internment / Gary Okihiro.  Santa Barabara, CA : Greenwood, 2013.  342pp.  Online resource D769.8.A6 E64 2013 :  The internment of Japanese Americans was a violation of the Constitution and its guarantee of equal protection under the law—yet it was authorized by a presidential order, given substance by an act of Congress, and affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court. Japanese internment is a topic that we as Americans cannot afford to forget or be ignorant of. This work spotlights an important subject that is often only described in a cursory fashion in general textbooks. It provides a comprehensive, accessible treatment of the events of Japanese American internment that includes topical, event, and biographical entries; a chronology and comprehensive bibliography; and primary documents that help bring the event to life for readers and promote inquiry and critical thinking.

Encyclopedia of Japanese descendants in the Americas : an illustrated history of the Nikkei / Akemi Kikumura-Yano, edited ; foreword by Daniel K. Inouye ; introduction by Gary Y. Okihiro.  Walnut Creek, CA : AltaMira Press, c2002.  322pp.  Main Library E29.J3 E53 2002 : The Encyclopedia is the first comprehensive guide to the history of Japanese immigrants in the western hemisphere. It is the story of the Nikkei (people of Japanese descent and their descendants) from early immigration to the present, as they settled in the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and the United States. Each chapter provides four primary areas of information: an historical overview, a bibliographic essay, an annotated bibliography, and supplementary materials including demographic data, and rare historical photographs. Noted scholars Gary Okihiro and Eiichiro Azuma provide key introductory essays on the historical context of Japanese migration from 1868 to the present. It is a valuable resource and fascinating , multi-faceted portrait of Japanese Americans for many audiences: researchers and all people of Japanese and Asian descent. The Foreword is by United States Senator Daniel K. Inouye.

The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas / Lynn Pan.  Harvard University Press, 1st edtition, 399pp. Main Library DS732 .E53 1999 )  : The first of its kind, this book offers a panoramic view of past and present overseas Chinese communities worldwide. From their arrival as laborers in the British colonies to their emergence as a force in Indonesia, Chinese emigrants have carried the experiences of China to other continents and civilizations, in the process modifying and enriching them. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas reflects the diverse histories and traditions that produced this diaspora, as well as the rich and various transmutations it has produced in turn.  Note: The United States is covered in part 5.

Everything You Need to Know About Asian-American History / Novas Himilce and Lan Cao with Rosemary SilvaNew York : Plume, 2004.  2004 edition.  410pp.  Main Library E184.A75 N68 2004 : Utilizing a lively question-and-answer format, a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of Asian-American history documents the dramatic impact of Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Korean, Indian, and Pacific Island cultures on American society, culture, politics, history, religion, and more.

Japanese American History : An A-to-Z Reference From 1868 to the Present / Brian Niiya, editor ; the Japanese American National Museum ; foreword by Daniel K. Inouye.  New York : Facts on File, c1993.  386pp.  Main Library E184.J3 J3355 1993 : Meant to reflect the current state of knowledge in the field of Japanese American studies. Consists of three major parts: a narrative historical overview, a chronology of Japanese-American history, and dictionary entries pertaining to the history of Japanese Americans.

Strangers From a Different Shore : A History of Asian Americans / Ronald Takaki.  Boston : Little, Brown, c1998.  591pp.  Main Library E184.O6 T35 1998 : In an extraordinary blend of narrative history, personal recollection, & oral testimony, the author presents a sweeping history of Asian Americans. He writes of the Chinese who laid tracks for the transcontinental railroad, of plantation laborers in the canefields of Hawaii, of "picture brides" marrying strangers in the hope of becoming part of the American dream. He tells stories of Japanese Americans behind the barbed wire of U.S. internment camps during World War II, Hmong refugees tragically unable to adjust to Wisconsin's alien climate & culture, & Asian American students stigmatized by the stereotype of the "model minority." This is a powerful & moving work that will resonate for all Americans, who together make up a nation of immigrants from other shores.

East Asian Americans and Political Participation : A Reference Handbook / Tsung Chi.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, c2005.  277pp.  Main Library E184.A75 C49 2005 : This useful reference volume focuses on the participation in US politics of three substantial ethnic/cultural groups: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Korean Americans. For the purposes of his study, Chi (Occidental College) has viewed these three groups as a political "block," and the groups are collectively described as "East Asian Americans." Chi, a political scientist, presents and interprets a variety of demographic, statistical, electoral, historical, and other information bearing on the political roles of this electorate. At the state and local levels, these groups of voters have been most successful in a few states where demographic patterns have worked in their favor--primarily California, Hawai'i, Washington, and New York. Their typical pattern of political participation has been characterized as "asymmetrical participation," in that their most influential political role has been as financial donor, rather than as voter. Election turnouts have typically been relatively low, even though members of these groups have been among the largest contributors to local and national candidates and campaigns. The author presents a substantial analysis of the data, tables, case studies, some biographical profiles, and a selection of documents. The volume includes a brief chronology. Readers should note that, with only a few exceptions, Chi does not attempt to deal with, or otherwise cover, the many groups of Asian Americans of either Southeast or South Asian origin. These additional groups now also make up an important part of the Asian American electorate.

National Asian Pacific American Political Almanac / UCLA Asian American Studies Center.  Latest edition available : 13th edition or 2007/2008  Main Library E184.O6 N385 : "The Asian Pacific American population, which has grown rapidly during the past four decades to 14 million nationwide, is building a viable, multifaceted political infrastructure that will have an increasingly decisive impact on American politics throughout the 21st century," said Nakanishi, director of the UCLA Asian American Studies Center. "As voters, as donors, as public policy advocates and as elected officials, Asian Pacific Americans seek to no longer remain as spectators to the parade of politics, or as vulnerable victims of partisan power struggles....Instead they are striving to become more organized, more visible and more effective as participants and leaders in order to advance - as well as to protect - their individual and group interests, and to contribute to our nation's democratic processes and institutions," Nakanishi said.

Encyclopedia of Asian American Artists / Kara Kelley HallmarkWestport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2007.  281pp.  Fine Arts Art Reference (4 West) N6538.A83 H35 2007 : Painters, photographers, sculptors, and installation artists are among the seventy-five artists represented in this guide to Asian American artists. Within each entry, Kara Hallmark describes the artists' early life, education and training, and impact on the art world both in their country of heritage as well as the U.S. While some artists dismiss any notion of their heritage influencing their work, others describe how assimilation and immigration affected themselves and their families, particularly those affected by World War II and the Japanese internment camps. Interviews with living artists, as well as extensive images, enhance entries that celebrate the contributions of Asian American Artists to American art.

Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife  / Jonathan H.X. Lee and Kathleen M. Nadeau, editors.  Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, 2011. 1 online resource (3 volumes)  GR111.A75 E63 2011 Online : This comprehensive compilation of entries documents the origins, transmissions, and transformations of Asian American folklore and folklife

Encyclopedia of Asian-American Literature / Seiwoong OhNew York : Facts On File, c2007.  384pp.  Main Library PS153.A84 O37 2007 : Asian Americans have been writing and publishing since the 19th century, but today the popularity and importance of Asian-American literature is greater than ever. "Encyclopedia of Asian-American Literature", a comprehensive new encyclopedia, traces American writers whose roots are in all parts of Asia, including China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia, India, the Middle East, and more. Coverage emphasizes works that are important in the high school and college literary canon, as well as the historically significant and the contemporary. The coverage includes: Carlos Bulosan; Donald Duk; Sui Sin Far (Edith Maude Eaton); Jessica Hagedorn; David Henry Hwang; Maxine Hong Kingston; Interpreter of Maladies; Gish Jen; Ha Jin; The Joy Luck Club; Jhumpa Lahiri; Chang-rae Lee; Bharati Mukherjee; Native Speaker; No-No Boy; Naomi Shihab Nye; John Okada; Cathy Song; Amy Tan; Waiting; and The Woman Warrior.

The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Asian American literature  / edited by Guiyou Huang.  Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2009.  3 volumes (1197pp.) PS153.A84 G74 2009 Online : Asian American literature dates back to the close of the 19th century, and during the years following World War II it significantly expanded in volume and diversity. Monumental in scope, this encyclopedia surveys Asian American literature from its origins through 2007. Included are more than 270 alphabetically arranged entries on writers, major works, significant historical events, and important terms and concepts. Thus the encyclopedia gives special attention to the historical, social, cultural, and legal contexts surrounding Asian American literature and central to the Asian American experience. Each entry is written by an expert contributor and cites works for further reading, and the encyclopedia closes with a selected, general bibliography of essential print and electronic resources. While literature students will value this encyclopedia as a guide to writings by Asian Americans, the encyclopedia also supports the social studies curriculum by helping students use literature to learn about Asian American history and culture, as it pertains to writers from a host of Asian ethnic and cultural backgrounds, including Afghans, Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, Iranians, Indians, Vietnamese, Hawaiians, and other Asian Pacific Islanders.

The Oxford Handbook of Asian American History / edited by David K. Yoo and Eiichiro Azuma.   New York : Oxford University Press, [2016]  524pp.  Main Library E184.A75 O94 2016 : After emerging from the tumult of social movements of the 1960s and 1970s, the field of Asian American studies has enjoyed rapid and extraordinary growth. Nonetheless, many aspects of Asian American history still remain open to debate. The Oxford Handbook of Asian American History offers the first comprehensive commentary on the state of the field, simultaneously assessing where Asian American studies came from and what the future holds. In this volume, thirty leading scholars offer original essays on a wide range of topics. The chapters trace Asian American history from the beginning of the migration flows toward the Pacific Islands and the American continent to Japanese American incarceration and Asian American participation in World War II, from the experience of exclusion, violence, and racism to the social and political activism of the late twentieth century. The authors explore many of the key aspects of the Asian American experience, including politics, economy, intellectual life, the arts, education, religion, labor, gender, family, urban development, and legal history. The Oxford Handbook of Asian American History demonstrates how the roots of Asian American history are linked to visions of a nation marked by justice and equity and to a deep effort to participate in a global project aimed at liberation. The contributors to this volume attest to the ongoing importance of these ideals, showing how the mass politics, creative expressions, and the imagination that emerged during the 1960s are still relevant today. It is an unprecedentedly detailed portrait of Asian Americans and how they have helped change the face of the United States.

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America  (print) / contributing editor, Robert von Dassanowsky ; author of introduction, Rudolph J. Vecoli ; edited by Jeffrey Lehman.  Detroit : Gale Group, c2000.  3 vols. Main Library E184.A1 G14 2000  : Essays on approximately 150 culture groups of the U.S., from Acadians to Yupiats, covering their history, acculturation and assimilation, family and community dynamics, language and religion.

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Primary Documents (print) / edited by Jeffrey Lehman. Detroit, MI : Gale Group, c1999.  2 volumes.  Main Library E184.A1 G15 1999 : Primary documents, including letters, articles, cartoons, photos, and songs, illuminate the experience of culture groups in the U.S. from colonial times to the present.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America / Thomas Riggs, editor.  Detroit : Gale, Cengage Learning, 2014.  3rd edition, 4 volumes.   Main Library E184.A1 G14 2014 : This third edition has been thoroughly reorganized and has 23 new entries, each covering an immigrant or indigenous group in the U.S. Although the writing on cultural history and political activity is well done, the information highlighted in separate boxes is what truly fleshes out each culture. Students will find population maps, Sioux proverbs, and a Salvadoran recipe for chili-lime mango.

Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (print) / Stephan Thernstrom, editor ; Ann Orlov, managing editor, Oscar Handlin, consulting editor.  Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press, 1980.  1076pp.  Oversize Collection (Basement, Center) E184.A1 H35  : Provides long, scholarly essays on all the ethnic groups in the United States, not only the immigrants and refugees who had come voluntarily but also those already in the New World when the first Europeans arrived, those whose ancestors came involuntarily as slaves, and those who became part of the American population as a result of conquest or purchase and subsequent annexation. Extensive bibliographies follow all major essays.

Multicultural America : a multimedia encyclopedia / Carlos E. Cortés, editor, University of California, Riverside.  Thousand Oaks, California : SAGE Reference, A Division of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2013.  E184.A1 M8145 2013 Online via Sage Knowledge.  : This comprehensive title is among the first to extensively use newly released 2010 U.S. Census data to examine multiculturalism today and tomorrow in America. This distinction is important considering the following NPR report by Eyder Peralta: “Based on the first national numbers released by the Census Bureau, the AP reports that minorities account for 90 percent of the total U.S. growth since 2000, due to immigration and higher birth rates for Latinos.” According to John Logan, a Brown University sociologist who has analyzed most of the census figures, “The futures of most metropolitan areas in the country are contingent on how attractive they are to Hispanic and Asian populations.” Both non-Hispanic whites and blacks are getting older as a group. “These groups are tending to fade out,” he added. Another demographer, William H. Frey with the Brookings Institution, told The Washington Post that this has been a pivotal decade. “We’re pivoting from a white-black-dominated American population to one that is multiracial and multicultural.”  Pedagogical elements include an introduction, a thematic reader’s guide, a chronology of multicultural milestones, a glossary, a resource guide to key books, journals, and Internet sites, and an appendix of 2010 U.S. Census Data. Finally, the electronic version will be the only reference work on this topic to augment written entries with multimedia for today’s students, with 100 videos (with transcripts) from Getty Images and Video Vault, the Agence France Press, and Sky News.

Multicultural America : An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans.  Ronald H. Bayor. Santa Barbara, Calif. : Greenwood, c2011.  4 volumes (Online resource) : One of the main reasons the United States has evolved so quickly and radically in the last 100 years is the large number of ethnically diverse immigrants that have become part of its population. People from every area of the world have come to America in an effort to realize their dreams of more opportunity and better lives, either for themselves or for their children. This book provides a fascinating picture of the lives of immigrants from 50 countries who have contributed substantially to the diversity of the United States, exploring all aspects of the immigrants' lives in the old world as well as the new. Each essay explains why these people have come to the United States, how they have adjusted to and integrated into American society, and what portends for their future. Accounts of the experiences of the second generation and the effects of relations between the United States and the sending country round out these unusually rich and demographically detailed portraits.  Immigrant groups include: Afghan, Argentinian, Bahamian, Bangladesh, Brazilian, Cambodian, Chilean, Chinese, Columbian, Costa Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Ecuadorian, Egyption, Eritrean, Ethiopian, Filipino, Ghanian, Guatemalan, Guyanese, Haitian, Honduran, Indian (Asian Indian), Indonesian, Iranian, Iraqi, Israeli Jewish, Jamaican, Japanese, Kenyan, Korean, Laotion, Lebanese, Liberian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Nigerian, Pakistani, Palestinian and Jordanian, Panamanian, Peruvian, Puerto Rican, Salvadorian, Somalian, Sudanese, Taiwanese, Thai, Trinidadian and Tobagonian, Venezuelan, and Vietnamese.

Multiculturalism in the United States : A Comparative Guide to Acculturation and Ethnicity (print) / edited by John D. Buenker and Lorman A. Ratner.   Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2005.  Rev. and expanded ed., 435pp.  Main Library E184.A1 M85 2005 : Contents -- Introduction / John D. Buenker and Lorman A. Ratner -- African Americans / Cynthia Greggs Fleming -- American Indians / Vine Deloria, Jr. -- Arab-Americans / Gregory Orfalea -- Asian Indian Americans / Karen I. Leonard -- Chinese Americans / George Anthony Peffer -- Dominican Americans / Silvio Torres-Saillant -- Filipino Americans / Augusto Espiritu -- German Americans / James M. Bergquist -- Haitian Americans / Marc Prou -- Irish Americans / Lawrence J. McCaffrey -- Italian Americans / Dominic Candeloro -- Jewish Americans / Edward S. Shapiro -- Korean Americans / Kyeyoung Park -- Mexican Americans / Matt S. Meier -- Polish Americans / Edward R. Kantowicz -- Scandinavian Americans / John Robert Christianson -- Vietnamese Americans / Hien Duc Do -- Bibliographical essay / John D. Buenker, Joseph D. Buenker, and Lorman A. Ratner.  Interest in ethnic studies and multiculturalism has grown considerably in the years since the 1992 publication of the first edition of this work. Co-editors Ratner and Buenker have revised and updated the first edition of Multiculturalism in the United States to reflect the changes, patterns, and shifts in immigration showing how American culture affects immigrants and is affected by them. Common topics that helped determine the degree and pace of acculturation for each ethnic group are addressed in each of the 17 essays, providing the reader with a comparative reference tool. Seven new ethnic groups are included: Arabs, Haitians, Vietnamese, Koreans, Filipinos, Asian Indians, and Dominicans. New essays on the Irish, Chinese, and Mexicans are provided as are revised and updated essays on the remaining groups from the first edition.


More advanced researchers may want to examine bibliographies -- compilations of authorative works on particular topics such as Asian American Studies.

Asian American studies : an annotated bibliography and research guide / edited by Hyung-chan KimNew York : Greenwood Press, 1989.  504pp.  Main Library E184.O6 K56 1989

 Asian Americans by Jennifer C. Lee and Alexander Lu courtesy of Oxford Bibliographies Online.  Provides short overview as well as annotated readings on:

For a more extensive listing, visit the MSU Library online catalog and try the following keyword search s:Asian Americans Bibliography

For a shorter list, search "Asian Americans -- Bibliography"  as a subject in the MSU Library online catalog.

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